Monday, January 27, 2020
Extranet Infrastructure For Hospital Chains Information Technology Essay Networking and Internet has revolutionized the means of communication and has made this world a small family. Many businesses have developed on the basis of Internet and have attained huge success by adopting to advanced technology in sensible manner. This assignment deals with network infrastructure implementation in a chain of hospitals. This assignment is divided into different sections starting from implementation of type of network with OSI TCP/IP implementation at different layers of infrastructure. Then it also includes the type of hardware / software required for implementation and also the most important part i.e. implementation of security policy. 1.0 Type of Network Type of network required to be chosen is a tedious task. Different types of network designs, are categorized based on their scope or scale. Network industry referes to each type of design as some kind of area network. Choosing an area network requires in-depth requirement analysis and cost analysis. There are different types of network available such as: LAN : Local Area Network MAN: Metropolitan Area Network WAN: Wide Area Network SAN: Storage Area Network WLAN: Wireless Local Area Network. CAN: Campus Area Network PAN: Personal Area Network DAN: Desk Area Network These all types of network are chosen in different types of situations. Considering the scenario of the chain of hospitals having 25 computers different types of options are available: If the hospitals are situated in a city then MAN can be implemented that can be used to connect different hospitals and LAN for connection inside each hospital. If the hospitals are dispersed in different cities or countries then WAN is required to connect two different hospitals and again LAN can be used for connection inside each hospital. SAN can be used to transfer large amounts of data between computer and storage elements. Justification: Since PAN and DAN are networks of short distances, it is not used to implement in this kind of scenario. CAN spans all LANs and since this is a matter of only 25 computers it is not a wise decision to implement CAN and neither cost effective. WLAN can be implemented but as communication become wireless there also comes into account security concerns which becomes costly. Since the hospital deals with lot of patients and huge amounts of data it is necessary to implement SAN since it will make data transfer more secure and robust. Topology for LAN connection: Now since the connection between hospitals is decided, next point of concern is the connection inside each hospital. The computers in a LAN can be connected in several ways. These different ways of connection is referred to as topology. There are several topologies such as: Bus Star Tree Ring Mesh Source: (GeoSig, 2009) Each and every topology has its own advantages and disadvantages. Sometimes there is also mixed topology called HYBRID topology that is used, which is the implementation of two or more topologies. Here in this scenario, the best configuration to use is mesh topology or ring topology. Justification: Mesh topology ensures robust and secure data communication since each all computers are attached by dedicated links. Also its secure since the message sent to the intended recipient only sees it. Hence mesh topology is ideal for secure and effective communication. The only disadvantage being amount of cabling causing an increase in number of I/O ports. In order to be cost effective ring topology is also advisable. Since in case of ring topology there is point to point line configuration only and hence amount of cabling is reduced. Also it is very easy to reinstall and reconfigure. Fault isolation is also achieved because in a ring there is a signal that is circulating every time. Hence if a device does not receive signal for a certain amount of time it can issue an alarm which can alert the networker to the problem and location. The only disadvantage is that break in the ring such as a disabled station causes the entire network to become disable. Although this disadvantage can be overcome by using dual ring or switch that is capable of closing this break. Other types of topologies are not taken into account for following reasons: In case of bus topology the cable length is limited to few number of computers and also modification in number of computers, fault isolation and reconfiguration is tedious task. In case of Star topology the failure of central hub caused the whole network to fail which is a very serious disadvantage. Tree topology is very much like the Star topology. It has two types of hubs instead of one as in star. But failure of any one type of hub results in failure of that whole network. Therefore the recommended network type for implementation is to adopt WAN or MAN for wider communication and LAN and Mesh/Ring topology for local communication. A basic LAN consists of the following components. Two or more computers. Network Interface card or LAN Card in each PC. Ethernet cable (Cat5, UTP/SPT) cable to connect the two computers. A hub, switch or router to route or direct the network traffic. Software for the communication/computer networking. The alternate technologies to Ethernet are Token Ring, which is used in the Ring Topologies networks. Token Ring is designed by the IBM and ATM. In ATM networking, devices are connected with each other over a very large distance (thus forms the WAN), and behaves like LANs. 2.0 OSI and TCP/IP Layer Implementation OSI an abbreviation for Open System Interconnection model was developed by ISO for facilitating communication across all types of computer systems. The purpose of OSI model is to facilitate communication regardless of their underlying architecture i.e. without requirement of changing the logic of underlying hardware and software. It is built of seven layers as follows: Physical : Layer 1 Data Link : Layer 2 Network : Layer 3 Transport : Layer 4 Session : Layer 5 Presentation : Layer 6 Application : Layer 7 TCP/IP is an abbreviation for Transmission Control Protocol/ Internetworking Protocol. The TCP/IP protocol suite was developed before the development of OSI model. Therefore the layers are not an exact match with the OSI model. The suite is made up of 5 layers: Physical : Layer 1 Data Link : Layer 2 Network : Layer 3 Transport : Layer 4 Application : Layer 5 OSI layer: Recommended hardware and software Hardware: Physical Layer: It defines all the components such as electrical, mechanical and all types of hardware for sending and receiving data, all physical aspects.such as fibre optic cables (since SAN is used), cards etc. The bit stream is conveyed at electrical and mechanical level. The characteristics defined by the physical layer are: Voltage levels Timing of impulses Physical data rates Max transmission distance Physical connectors. The implementation of physical layer can be classified as either LAN or WAN specifications. Data Link Layer The data link layer is responsible to define the format of the data and ensure its reliable transfer. It facilitates frame synchronization, protocol management, flow control and also handles all errors in physical layer. There are 2 sublayers: MAC: Media Access Control LLC: Logical Link Control MAC is responsible for two devices to uniquely identify each other while LLC is responsible for managing communication over a single link of network. The hardware that operate at this layer are Hubs and Switches. Network Layer: Network layer provides facility of switching, congestion control, routing and error handling. The protocol operating at this layer is called IP i.e. Internetworking Protocol and it defines the the way of determining route selection systematically. In order to facilitate thi, Routers operate at this layer that determines the way of forwarding packets. Transport Layer At the transport layer data is segmented into packets for transferring across the network. The function of this layer is to provide flow control, error checking and recovery and multiplexing.This layer makes use of protocols such as TCP i.e Transport Control Protocol and UDP i.e. User Datagram Protocol. Session Layer Session layer is responsible for dealing with session and connectin co-ordination. Its function is to establish, manage and terminate communication session. The protocols functioning in this layer are Remote Procedure Call (RPC), Zone Information Protocol (ZIP), Appletalk, Session Control Protocol (SCP). Presentation This layer is responsible for coding and conversion of data from application to network format. It makes sure that the data of application layer is readable by the application layer of other system. It contains software used for encryption of data and thereby providing compatibility between systems. Application Layer This layer is completely responsible for the software applications. The main function is to identify the communication partners and determine the availability of resources and also synchronizing communication. It provides end user services such as e-mails, file transfer, virtual terminal access and network management.The softwares required to be implemented is discussed after the TCP/IP network model. Some of the examples implemented in application layer are File Transfer Protocol(FTP), Telnet and Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). TCP/IP Network Model The physical and data link layer performs similar to OSI model. Physical and Data link It defines all drivers and NIC (Network Interface Card) Network Layer It handles basic communication and protocols operating at this layer are IP, ARP, IGMP and ICMP. Transport Layer Handles the flow of data and segments data into packets over network. TCP and UDP operate in this layer. Application Layer: It handles data of end user applications. Frequently used TCP/IP applications includes Telnet, SMTP, SNMP, DNS, NTP, Traceroute, RIP and NFS. Recommended Softwares: The softwares required for communication over intranet are: Windows 7 OS UnixWare Remote Desktop connnection Lan Messenger Justification: The OS recommended is Windows 7 since it is the latest and fastest OS as compared to previous versions of Microsoft. Remote Desktop connection is required to be establised in order to connect the computer over LAN or WAN. UnixWare provides facility of data communication over WAN. It establishes point to point links thereby facilitating fast transfer. SAN network also requires fast and efficient data communication that also can be achieved by usage of this software. Lan Messenger or a system that is uniformly implemented on all computers should be purchased. 3.0 IT Policy Main purpose of the IT policy stated is to define a framework on how to protect the Hospitals computer systems, network and all data contained within, or accessible on or via these systems from all threats whether internal, external, deliberate or accidental. It is the policy of institution is to ensure that: All central computer systems and information contained within them will be protected against any unauthorised access or use. Information kept in these systems is managed securely, should comply withÃ relevant data protection laws in a professional and proper way. All members of the hospital are aware that it is the part of their duty to abide by this policy. All employees (computer users ) accept total responsibility adhering to and implementing this policy within their service areas. The integrity and confidentiality of all central computer systems; accessible on or via these systems is the responsibility of Computing Services. All regulatory and legislative requirements regarding computer security and information confidentiality and integrity will be met by Computing Services and the hospital regulatory bodies. All breaches of security will be reported to and investigated by a nominated security coordinator usually within Computing Services and hospital regulatory bodies. The primary role of the Hospital function regarding medication and research is not hindered. 2. Statement of Authority, Scope and Responsibilities In addition all users have a responsibility to report promptly (to Computing Services or Hospitals regulatory bodies) any incidents which may have a security significance to the Hospital. 3. The Computing Environment Computing Services(under the guidance of hospital regulatory bodies) plan, maintain and operate a range of central computing servers, core network switches, edge network switches, backup systems, and the overall network infrastructure interconnecting these systems. The computing environment is defined as all central computing resources and network infrastructure managed and overseen by Computing Services and all computing devices that can physically connect, and have been authorised to connect, to this environment. All are covered by this policy, including computing hardware and software, any Hospital related data residing on these machines or accessible from these machines within the campus network environment and any media such as CD-ROMs, DVD-ROMs and backup tapes that may at times be accessible.. Computing Services also considers all temporary and permanent connections via the Hospital network, casual laptop docking points, the Wireless network, the Virtual Private Network and the RAS modem pools to be subject to the provisions of this policy. Computing resources not owned by the Hospital may be connected to the Hospitals network. However, all such resources must function in accordance with Hospitals regulations governing the use of computing resources. Computing Services reserves the right to monitor, log, collect and analyze the content of all transmissions on networks maintained by both Computing Services and individual departments and organisations at any time deemed necessary for performance and fault diagnostic purposes. Any network monitoring will be performed in accordance with the Computer Systems Scanning and Monitoring Policy. It is the right of computing service to check or monitor any employees login without prior content. 4. Physical Security Computing Services provides a secure machine room with protected power arrangements and climate controlled environment. Primarily for the provision of central computing and network facilities individual departments and, if appropriate, individuals are encouraged to make use of the facility for applicable teaching or research projects. Any computer equipment in general office environment should be within physically secure rooms outside of general office hours. Desktop machines in public areas should contain a device or mechanism for securing and protecting the main components and contents of the computer from theft. The above is in accordance with The Hospitals insurance policy . 5. Access to Systems Computer and network systems access is only via individual user accounts. Please refer to the user accounts policy for further details and account eligibility. 5.1 Email Accounts provide access to email facilities. Use of email is governed by Computing Services email policy. 5.2 File Storage All users have access to the centrally managed file storage. Use of the file storage is governed by Computing User file storage policy, It should be appreciated for most applications the security of files on the server is considered to be adequate. However files held on a Network File Server (NFS) should never be considered completely secure. For this reason Computing Services do not recommend that you hold sensitive information such as exam papers or results on the central server (or on any NFS file server for that matter). 5.3 The Web All users have the right to publish their own web pages under the appropriate subdomain of bath.ac.uk. Individual users will be responsible for content in these areas and the Hospital reserves the right to remove access to any material which it deems inappropriate, illegal or offensive. Users should not in any way use their personal web space for commercial purposes. Users shall not in any way use personal web space to publish material which deliberately undermines IT security at the Hospital or elsewhere. Users shall not publish any information regarding open accounts, passwords, PINs, illegally obtained software licenses, hacking tools, common security exploits or similar unless there are specific and legitimate reasons to do so. E.G in order to demonstrate a problem to enable a fix, or similar. 5.4 Internet Access The campus network is connected to the Internet via SWERN and JANET. Computing Services operate and maintain a firewall with the aim of protecting the campus network and Computer systems from unauthorised or illegal access or attack from the external environment. 5.5 Campus Network Individuals must seek permission from local support representatives before connecting any machine to the LAN. Particular attention must be paid to the Host connection and IP Address Allocation policy before any connection is made. Computing Services may disconnect any unauthorised host from the network without warning if discovered. 6. Remote Access to Systems Remote access is defined as accessing systems from a physically separate network. This may include: Connections direct across the Internet VPN Connections Direct dial connections to the RAS (Remote Access Service) Any user with a valid Hospital computer account may access systems as appropriate. Remote access is allowed via secure methods only. Remote connections to any campus IT services are subject to the same rules and regulations, policies and practices just as if they were physically on the campus. Computing Services shall provide the only VPN and dial-in service that can be used. All connections via these services will be logged. No other remote access service shall be installed or set up, including single modems connected to servers or workstations. Any active dial-in services found to be in existence will be removed from the network. 7. Data Security The Hospital holds a variety of sensitive data including personal informationÃ about students and staff. If you have been given access to this information, youÃ are reminded of your responsibilities under data protection law. You should only take a copy of data outside the Universitys systems if absolutely necessary, and you should exhaust all other options before doing so. This includes putting sensitive data onto laptops, memory sticks, cds/dvds orÃ into emails. If you do need toÃ take data outside the University, this should only be with the authorisation of the Universitys data protection officer. As part of this you should perform a risk assessment on the implications of it falling into the wrong hands, and take appropriate steps to mitigate against this. This will almost certainly include encrypting the information, and checking the data protection statements of any recipients of the data. There are a variety of methods of remote access to systems available (in particular using VPN and remote desktop or terminal services) whichÃ allow you to work on data in-situ rather than taking it outside the University, and these should always be used in preference to taking data off-site. Computing ServicesÃ offers a variety ofÃ information and support to help you keep data secure.Ã IfÃ you are uncertain about any aspect of data security, you must contact us for advice. 8. Anti-Virus Security Computing Services will provide means by which all users can download and install current versions of site-licensed virus protection software. Users must ensure that they are running with adequate and up-to-date anti-virus software at all times. If any user suspects viral infection on their machine, a complete virus scan should be performed. If Computing Services detect a machine behaving abnormally due to a possible viral infection it will disconnected from the network until deemed safe. Reconnection will usually be after liaison with the
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Employer-Employee Relations Quiz Name MGT 434/ Employment Law Date Instructor Employer-Employee Relations Quiz The Company of Little Lamb hired Mary as a programmer for a special project. There was a contract for that specific project, and near completion. However, the company was still in need of her services. So, they asked Mary to continue working with the company until the project was finished. There was no mention of any contract made; however, the supervisor of the company began to work directly with Mary.They wanted her to use company materials, equipment and at the same time remain on company work schedules. The company after two years went through financial difficulties and they asked Mary to leave. But a mere thirty days later the Little Lamb Company acquired a major contract. They hired MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s relative and never offer her the opportunity to return. Investigation: Is Mary an independent contractor or an employee? Describe the factors that led to her determination. Th ere is a need to know the release of Mary from her employment.The employment-at-will was under action for legal set of guidelines. There are two related questions that needed to be answered first and these are: 1) her status while working at the Company, if she was an independent contractor or an employee; and 2) the nature of the employer-employee relationship, if it underwent change over the course of time. Based on the information given, May was a skilled programmer who worked outside the context of regular office hours and direct supervision from the company manger or supervisor.There was a contract that was made for a specific project. It was pointed out that the project was near completion and therefore there was a time element to the work that it was not expected to go on and on forever. This means that Mary knew that after the project was completed, her services was no longer needed and the company had no obligation to retain her services or to make her an employee of Little Lamb Company. Has the employer-employee relationship changed over the course of time? Is so, how?Even so, when the project was completed for Little Lamb Company, Mary was still asked to continue working as a programmer and her services. There were changes in the employer-employee relationship. Her supervisor began to work closely with her in the new project. Mary was asked to continue using materials, equipment, and to follow the work schedules provided from the company. This simply means that Mary was considered as a valuable asset to the company and she was not working outside the company but within the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s location.This made the job more gratifying along with having sources at her finger tips. Mary worked there for an additional two years. This suggests that she was working there even after she completed the second project. She is considered as an employee of the company. This brings the discussion to the last question: was Is MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s release legal under the d octrine of employment-at-will? Explain why or why not? If not, which of the following exceptions to employment-at-will have been violated? Explain why.Based on the doctrine of at-will-employment MaryÃ¢â¬â¢s release from employment was legal. According to experts; Ã¢â¬Å"An at-will-employment arrangement is an arrangement in which the employee serves at the unilateral pleasure of the employerÃ¢â¬ (Reda, Reifler, & Thatcher, 2008). This simply means that the employer can terminate the services of Mary without giving any explanation and there is no legal problem for doing so. This is because there were no written employment agreements, plans, letters, or similar writing that Mary could have used to show that there was a breach of agreement.There was a contract made but it can only be understood as contracts that were made for the first and second project. Following the completion of these two projects Mary was given another work load but there was no contract concerning her salary and other benefits that she could expect from the company. In this case the employment can only be understood as at-will-employment and the employer has the right to terminate her services without just cause.In many cases the need to reorganize and to reduce the number of employees are valid reasons for the company to release somebody from employment and the courts will judge in their favor. Exceptions to At-Will Employment The doctrine of at-will-employment clearly favors the employer. The employer need not prove just cause before terminating the services of Mary. There are instances where the Company Little Lamb may be found to be in breach of the following: 1) breach of public policy; 2) breach of implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing; and 3) breach of implied contract University of Phoenix Syllabus (2011).Even though at-will-employment gives the employer the ability to terminate employment at will, Mary can complain against unlawful termination if Mary was dismissed b ecause she was asked to commit a crime, released from employment because she was a whistleblower against the illegal activities of the employer, dismissed because she served on a jury against the employerÃ¢â¬â¢s wishes or dismissed because she exercised her legal right Ã¢â¬â this is considered a breach in public policy.Based on the information given Mary was not released because she was a whistleblower or testified against the company. Her employment was terminated because the company went through a financial difficulty. There could be an implied breach of contract with good faith along with fair dealing taking into consideration because Mary worked so hard for the company. This was evidenced by the fact that she was asked to do another special project when the first one was near completion.This is also made clear when Mary was asked to continue working for Little Lamb Company for two more years. This principle is based on the idea that there exists a special relationship of tr ust and reliance between the employer and employee and this can be measured by length of service (Vettori, 2007). In the case of Mary two years of work under at-will-employment is not enough to show that there was a special relationship of trust and reliance.At first glance it may seem that the Little Lamb Company is in breach of implied contract because of the way it treated Mary, starting from changing her status from a contract to an at-will employee with letting her stay and work for two more years can be interpreted as the company being satisfied by the way she perform as a programmer. This does not immediately mean that there was a contract implied or otherwise. In Guz v. Bechtel National, Inc. he California Supreme Court decided that: Ã¢â¬Å"even if the employee has worked for a company for a long time, and during that tenure received pay raises, commendations, promotions, and other recognitions of continuing good performanceÃ¢â¬ this does not by itself create an implied c ontract protecting the employee from being released without just cause (Orrick, 2010). In Conclusion, Mary worked at Little Lamb Company for more than two years, first as an independent contractor and then as an employee.It was clear that there was a change in the employer-employee relationship because she was asked to do things that only apply to employees. As a result, when she was released from employment there could be grounds to contest the dismissal based on the breach of implied contract, breach of public policy with covenant of good faith and fair dealing consideration which brought attention in any deciding factors. However, there was no contract or any form of written agreement stating that Mary can only be terminated by first establishing just cause.This is because she is under at-will-employment and in this scenario the employer can terminate her services without just cause. It is very clear that the doctrine of at-will-employment protects the interest of the employer an d if Mary wanted to have job security the only way to do so would be to secure an agreement or a contract from Little Lamb Company that she can only be terminated with just cause. References Law Library-American Law and Legal Information. (2010).Employment at Will-Breach of an Implied Covenant of Good Faith and Fair Dealing. Accessed 01 August 2010 from http://law. jrank. org/pages/6433/Employment-at-Will-Breach-an-Implied-Covenant-Good-Faith-Fair-Dealing. html Reda, J. , S. Reifler, & L. Thatcher. (2008). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Vettori, S. (2007). The Employment Contract and the Changed World of Work. VT: Ashgate Publishing. University of Phoenix syllabus, (2011) MGT 434 Employment Law, Little Lamb Scenario
Friday, January 10, 2020
Loreen Jill Ramirez Catubay 12 September 2010 HSS1C. 01 Miss. Erickson FRENCH REVOLUTION DBQ Ã¢â¬Å"The French Revolution. Ã¢â¬ What pops up in your head? Probably a plethora of ideas. Images of riots, nobles, monarchy and such. So many mistakes and so many achievements has come out of the French Revolution. Many failed policies, laws and many inspirational and influential ideas has come of the French Revolution. The important causes of the French Revolution has changed France.The French Revolution had many causes which lead to the outbreak of the revolution such as heavy taxes, extreme poverty and the ideas of the Enlightenment. During Arthur YoungÃ¢â¬â¢s travel through France from 1787 to 1789 he stated Ã¢â¬Å"There is an injustice levying on the amount of each person must payÃ¢â¬ (Document 1). One Cause that brought of the French Revolution is the inequality of the levy and taxes on the among the 3 estates. The first estate which is the body of all people ordained for reli gious duties most commonly in the Christian Church was called the Ã¢â¬Å"ClergyÃ¢â¬ .The Clery had no taxes on them but they, The Clergy could collect tithes or taxes from people who are living on churches land. The Clergy owned 10% of the countries land but shockingly the Clergy consist of 1% of the countries population. The second estate which is known as belonging to a hereditary class with high social or political status is called the Ã¢â¬Å"NoblesÃ¢â¬ . The Nobles had very few taxes on them while they collected taxes and rents from peasants while the peasants worked for both higher classes, the first estates and the second estate.The second estate, Nobles consisted of only 2% of the population but owned 35% of the countries land. Last but not least, This brings us to the third estate of peasants. Peasants are either Middles class, peasants or city workers. These people consisted of 97% of the countries population. They owned only 55% of the land. The third estate was treate d very unfairly in both land and taxes. Peasants earned the least but paid the most taxes. This made them very mad about the injustice of the heavy levying as stated in the quote.During the Arthur YoungÃ¢â¬â¢s stay in France he has observed a lot of things about France as a country. Arthur Young stated on September 5,1788 that, Ã¢â¬Å"The poor people seem very poor indeed. The children are terribly raggedÃ¢â¬ (Document 1). Due to the heavy taxes on the peasants who work the longest and hardest jobs yet earn the least they had very little money lift for themselves and their families. Arthur Young also noticed that , Ã¢â¬Å"The price of bread has risen above the peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to payÃ¢â¬ .The people were so poor that they did not even have enough money to buy bread for themselves to eat while the people in the first and second estate were eating steaks, cakes and many luxurious foods. This situation of unfairness and inequality made the peasants anger towards the other estates and the monarchy grow. Historian Albert Mathiez claims that leadership fell into the middle class in which he stated that, Ã¢â¬Å"The middle classÃ¢â¬ ¦.. was sensitive to their inferior legal position. The Revolution came from them-the middle class.They were just beginning to learn to readÃ¢â¬ (Document 4). Through this the middle class gained knowledge and ideas of the Enlightenment. They became philosophers. They started to believe and realized many things. Voltaire believed in freedom of speech but gone thrown in jail for making fun of a rich baron. This made the rest of the citizens to wonder about what they could say and why werenÃ¢â¬â¢t they allowed to talk about whatever they wanted?. John Locke was a believer of natural rights from birth and is famous for his writings on rights of life, liberty and property.His writings made people have an Ã¢â¬Å"oh yeah! why NOT?! Ã¢â¬ moment and questioned their rights and the other estates rights deciding that this was unfair and unjust. These people started to believe and agree with what these philosophers thought than what the king or the clergy thought. The 3 situations that helped caused the revolution. Heavy taxes were unjust as the peasants who earned the least, paid the most taxes while the other estates lived a luxurious life. The extreme famine which of left the peasants stomach digesting in nothing but anger towards the onarchy while the higher estates had tea parties and buffets and ideas of the Enlightenment which opened the eyes of many others about how much unfairness, inequality and injustice they have been treated with and that this was not tolerable as they philosophers encouraged them for they believed that everyone should have rights, liberty and freedom. The citizens years of suffering, inequality, injustice, unfairness and anger were the causes that had lead to the French Revolution.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1367 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Argumentative essay Did you like this example? The graph clearly shows the asset turnover of the four firms Digi Box 0.53x, Little World 1.07x, Blue 0.43x and Mersal 0.24x here the average asset turnover is 0.57x. The asset turnover ratio represents the turnover of assets by dividing sales on total assets (Brigham Houston, 2007). The asset turnover ratio shown in the graph revealed that Little World is the leader when it comes to volume of the business with respect to its total asset investment with asset turnover ratio of 1.07x. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Financial Indicators Asset Turnover Finance Essay" essay for you Create order Mersal with lowest asset turnover 0.24x is even below the average asset turnover of 0.57x, the firm seriously needs to increase its sales or sell some of the assets or use both strategies to increase asset turnover. Mersal must use either of the strategies to increase its asset turnover. Blue with asset turnover of 0.43x shows the firm also needs to increase its assets turnover by increasing sales or adopting similar strategies. Digi Box has asset turnover of 0.53x the firm could further increase its sales to become the leader in terms of assets turnover. Equity ratio is also termed as debt ratio which specifically measures the long-term debt paying capacity or ability of any firm (Gibson, 2011). This ratio also measures that how well the creditors are protected or covered against risk if the company becomes bankrupt. The graph shows the equity ratio of the four firms Digi Box 83.21%, Little World 70.53%, Blue 95.91% and Mersal 89.37%, here the average for equity ratio is 84.76%. Comparing with the average trade mark equity ratio of 84.76% the Little Worlds equity ratio of 70.53% which is the lowest and shows that Little world is financed more with the help of debt instead of equity, and the ratio is signalling an alarm for the creditors that the firm is losing its capacity to pay its long-term debt. Comparing equity ratio of Little World with Digi Boxs equity ratio of 83.21%, Digi Box is in the red area of near to losing its capacity to pay long-term debts. Mersal with equity ratio of 89.37% and Blue 95.91% shows that these two firms are more financed by banks and therefore threatens the creditors that they are not protected for long-term investments in the firm. Net debt to equity ratio measures the leverage of the firm by dividing long-term debt by stockholders equity and focuses on long-term debts (Megginson Smart, 2009). This ratio is another indication of the level of debt taken by the firm and presents the results by spreading total debt over the shareholders. The net debt to equity ratio in the graph show net debt to equity ratio of Digi Box -52.3%, Little World -12.84%, Blue -64.17% and Mersal -67.16%, here the average will be -49.12%. Mersal with net debt to equity ratio -67.16% shows that the firm is leveraged less with debt and relies heavily on equity and has the least exposure to debt out of the four firms. Blue comes second with -64.17% and Digi Box third at -52.13% of net debt to equity ratio, the negative ratio shows that the firm can take loans from the bank to start new investments as long as the rate of the return of investments is more than the rate of interest. Little World with net debt to equity ratio of -12.84% relies comparatively more on debt with respect to other firms but still the negative values shows that the firm is leveraged through equity and not through debt. Asset Structure Asset Structure shows how much of the firms assets are fixed assets, inventories, receivables and cash equivalents. Firms whose assets are suitable for banks to keep as security and offer loans, use debt more than the firms whose assets are not suitable for security as loan (Brigham Houston, 2007). Asset structure is an important factor in making capital structure decisions. According to the figures shown in the graph Little World has 84.62K receivables which is higher Blue 64.22K, Mersal 59.69K, DigiBox 41.67K and shows that more of little worlds assets are in the form of receivables. Receivables do increase assets but provided they are not liquid assets, hence reducing asset turnover of a firm. Little World also has the most Fixed Assets equal to 901.6K showing the firms long-term investments also the assets which can be kept for security with banks in order to take loans for investments. At the same time the graph shows Little World also has the minimum inventories of 775.52K whi ch is good and low inventories add up to increase asset turnover, and Mersal at 332.77K, DigiBox 1.35M, Little World 775.52K and Blue 1.63M with the highest inventories. Blue held the most cash and cash equivalent of 6.09M showing the liquidity of the firm. Total Asset/Equity The asset structure revealed that team Little World has 84.62K of its assets in the form of receivables hence decreasing the liquidity of the team. Little World has the most Fixed Assets equal to 901.6K, hence firm can seek more investments from banks and Little World also held minimum inventories. The asset turnover ratio also revealed that Little World has the highest asset turnover ratio of 1.07x, more than Digi Box 0.53x, Blue 0.43x and Mersal 0.24x. Therefore according to asset structure and turnover Little World has the highest asset turnover out of all the four teams. Average Logistics Cost per sold product This graph shows the average logistics cost for selling products in Asia and Erurope, Mersal with USD 20.8 the highest average logistics cost per product sold in Asia and Little World with USD 6.6 the lowest average logistic cost per product sold in Asia. Consequently Little World outperforming others with lowest average logistics cost per sold product in Asia. Blue and Mersal have the highest average logistics cost per sold product in Europe i.e. USD 12.6 and DigiBox has the lowest average logistics cost per sold product i.e USD 8.9, consequently in Europe DigiBox outperforms Little World, Mersal and Blue. Selected Line Item Analysis Outsourcing Costs The Tech 1 product costs show the graph for outsourcing production to Asia and it reveals that Digi Box has the lowest cost for outsourcing work to Asia followed by Blue. The Tech 2 production cst graph reveals that Little world has the lowest cost for outsourcing to USA and Asia. Research and Development The figures in profit and loss statement show that Little World spends the highest on Research and Development i.e. USD 330,000 K more than Mersal 251,085 K, Blue 205,000K and DigiBox 55,000K. Research and development is an important part in product development, team Little World spending more on research and development is an important factor in increasing sales consequently increasing total asset turnover. Cash Reserves Mersal has the highest cash and cash equivalent as shown by the figures in Balance Sheet, which shows the liquidity of the firm but also losing investment opportunities due to holding large sums of cash, followed by Blue and DigiBox. Little World on the other hand has lowest cash and cash equivalent showing that the firm is involved more in investing activities. Simulation Learning Outcomes Logistics According to the graph Team Mersal has the highest average logistics cost per sold product in Asia i.e. USD 25.6 and DigiBox with USD 18.7 the lowest average logistics cost per sold product in Asia, therefore team DigiBox has the competitive edge over Little World USD 23.9, Blue USD 20.9 and Mersal. Managing a global organization is a complex challenge to manage logistics in Asia and Europe, here team DigiBox outperforms in Asia whereas in Europe all the teams have almost the same average logistics cost per sold product. Learning This exercise revealed that team Little World has the highest market share of 34.59%, followed by DigiBox 25.94%, Blue 22.84% and Mersal 16.62%. Little world is also offering competitive prices in USA for both Tech 1 and Tech 2. DigiBox is offering lowest prices for Tech 1 in USA. Consequently Little World is the leader in terms of prices in USA, Aisa and Europe. Final Remarks The Simulation exercise has been very useful in managing global operations with the help of financial ratio analysis financial statements. This simulation has helped the team to make decisions based on the information retrieved from financial ratios, consequently providing opportunities for students to learn how to predict financial numbers.