Monday, September 30, 2019
Antisemitism refers to hatred or prejudice towards the Jews. The Nazi antisemitism started in 1933 and ended in 1945 marking a period of persecution and murder of Jews in Europe by the Nazis in Germany under Hitler's ruling regime (Poliakov, 8). Background information. Hatred against the Jews was prevalent in the modern era especially in the 19th and 20th century. This led to the origin of the word antisemitism which refers to the pogroms, violence and riots propelled by governments against the Jews (Falk, 10). Pogroms and violence against the Jews were initially instigated by false beliefs that the Jews were using blood from Christian children for their religious rituals. In the 19th century, the prejudice against the Jews intensified with the formation of antisemitic political parties in Germany, Austria and France. This marked the beginning of an international conspiracy against the Jews with the component of nationalism which treated Jews as disloyal and illegal citizens. In the late 19th century, a political party named as Voelkisch movement which comprised mainly of German philosophers promoted the notion that Jews were not a part of the Germandom. Eugenic theories based on racial anthropology helped to support this notion and from this pseudoscientific ideas, the Nazi party was founded in 1919. The Nazi party which was headed by Adolf Hitler helped to promote theories of racism and hatred towards the Jews which called for their removal out of Germany. In 1933, the Nazi party was elected to power and it immediately ordered for economic boycotts against the Jews with the introduction of anti-Jewish laws. In the beginning of 1935, the anti-Jewish laws called for a total separation between the Jews and the rest of the citizens thereby legalizing a hierarchy based purely on racism. In November 1938, antisemitic groups embarked on a mission to destroyed synagogues and business establishments owned by the Jews in Germany and Austria in what is now known as the Kristallnacht. This marked the beginning of an era of destruction and mass killing for the Jews. This period is known as Nazi antisemitism and it led to a holocaust which killed millions of Jews and destroyed many more (Learner, 128-134). The catholic church has in the past faced many rows over claims that it supported Hitler and the Nazis in the racial discrimination against the Jews (Doyle, 120). However, the Roman catholic has strongly denied these claims and in fact, it highly opposed such acts of hatred against the Jews. Though the church has admitted of having failed to do its best to end the war, it has evidently affirmed its opposing stand against Hitler's regime and acts of antisemitism. This paper seeks to establish the response of the catholic church towards the Nazi antisemitism. Biblical views on antisemitism. The bible and particularly the New Testament has been singled out as having strong hostility and antagonism towards the Jews. The Gospel of John has many antisemitic phrases and episodes which refer to the Jews in a derogatory way. In John 8: 37-40 is one such phrase where Jesus was speaking to the Pharisees of how the Jews were planning to persecute Him since they did not believe in what He spoke to them about God. The book of 1 Thessalonian 2:13-15 speaks of how Churches in Judea were suffering under the hands of those people people who persecuted Jesus. It also talks about how such acts by the Jews were displeasing to God and Christians. The New Testament also adds that while on trial, a Jewish guard struck Jesus on the face for uttering ill words against the Jewish high priest (John 18: 20). Moreover, the death of Jesus preceded by brutal mockery (Matt 27: 24-39) has been entirely blamed on the Jews who mocked and persecuted Him in life and on the cross. Some theology scholars have speculated that the unnamed people who mocked Jesus while on the cross were actually Jews and they have added that though Romans were the lead executors of the prosecution and crucification of Jesus, the Jews also played a great role in the events which led to His death. The chronological events which led to the death of Jesus as stated in the New Testament led to the anti-Judaism perception held by most Christians. After the death of Jesus, the New Testament indicates that the Jewish leaders living in Jerusalem became hostile towards the followers of Jesus forcing them to stop preaching the gospel or die. Stephen who was on of the Jesus disciples was stoned to death by the Jews for going against the Jewish laws and preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ. In Acts 7: 51-58 just before his persecution, Stephen spoke to the Jews in an antisemitic way referring to them as Ã¢â¬Å"stiff necked, uncircumcised and opposers of the Holy Spirit. Ã¢â¬ All this instances show how the New Testament which was primarily written by the Jews who became Jesus followers contains many antisemitic passages which led to an anti-Judaism perception in the early Christian churches. The Roman Catholic Church which is one of the early churches had also had the anti-Judaism belief which has led to its association with antisemitic acts in the Nazi antisemitism. Catholic church and Nazi antisemitism. Throughout the 19th and the 20th century, the Roman Catholic Church still held on strongly to many antisemitic beliefs and the notion that the Jews led to the death of Jesus as indicated in the New Testament despite efforts to distinguish between anti-Judaism and racially instigated antisemitism. However in the early 20th century, the Catholic church made a clear distinction between good and bad antisemitism to all its followers. According to Kertzer (pp. 2-25), the bad type of antisemitism was unchristian as it advocated for hatred and racial bias against the Jews due to their background while the good type of antisemitism only served to criticize the Jewish conspiracies which sought to control all sectors of the economy in Germany for selfish wealth accumulation. At this time, many catholic bishops wrote articles criticizing such acts but when accused of being antisemitic, the bishops argued that they were strongly against any acts of hatred o r destruction plotted against the Jews. The church's response to Nazi antisemitism. Catholic church and the Christian community as a whole strongly despised the Nazi antisemitism. Kain in his popular book entitled Europe: Versailles to War-saw explains that the Nazis acts towards the Jews greatly offended Christians and led to protests by German army chaplains to Hitler in 1937 warning him of a future war in Germany due to his ungodly acts. The opposition by the catholic church response towards the Nazi antisemitism was quite straight-forward and emphatic. Catholic clergy was one of the first people who stood firmly to declare opposition towards the Nazis despite threats of persecution. Several Christians also stood firmly to oppose the Nazi antisemitism. For instance, Stauffenberg who was a devout catholic plotted Hitler's assassination in 1944 to depict his strong faith and opposition against the Jews' persecutions and killings. Stauffenberg was later killed by the Nazis after the attempts to assassinate Hitler failed. The catholic church believes on the Christian view of man made in the image and likeness of God and for this reason, every human being deserves enormous dignity regardless of race, state or background. According to Macrobio a professor at the Regina Pontifical University, Pope Pius XIII who was the leader of the Roman Catholic Church during the period of Nazi antisemitism was strongly opposed to the antisemitism and eugenic theories imposed against the Jews. A decree released by the Holy office in December 1940 by the Pope clearly condemned the killings and the racial laws put forward by Hitler and the Nazi party against the Jews. The decree stated that such killings were wrong and ungodly since they went against the natural law and all the divine precepts as defined by the Holy Bible. Throughout the war, Pius XII kept on pleading privately for a stop on the continued killings on behalf of the Jews and even after the war, he still condemned the Nazi antisemitism. In 1946 when speaking to a group of delegates in Palestine, the Pope affirmed the Church's stand on its opposition towards the persecutions carried out by Hitler and the Nazis against the Jews with no apologies. Why the church opposed Nazi antisemitism and eugenic theories. Eugenic theories are aimed at imposing discrimination to a certain group of people. For the catholic church, all men are equal in the eyes of God since humanity is not defined by neither external capabilities such as beauty nor internal characteristics such as knowledge. Every one be it a saint or a sinner is believed to be a son of God and only the father can judge whom to punish for their sins and whom to bless. Due to this fact, its wrong for the church to support the eugenic theories and antisemitic acts which seem to favor some individuals or racial groups over others. The catholic church further believes that discrimination of any kind is ungodly and unlawful regardless of whether it occurs in form of verbal racism or holocaust as in the case of the Nazi antisemitism as long as it threatens man's dignity and the church has an ultimate responsibility to oppose it by all means. Conclusion. The Pope's reactions towards the holocaust were quite complex but one clear indication is that the catholic church was against these antisemitism acts and it strongly condemned them (Schoenberg, 2). At times the Pope acted privately with attempts to help the Jews in their escapes out of Germany and he succeeded but on most occasions, the church just chose to remain quiet on issues surrounding the war with the aim of appealing neutral. The reason which might have led to continued silence by the Pope and the catholic church during the holocaust has been attributed to fear of Nazi reprisals, the notion that public speech would have had no significant effect on the war or the feeling that such speeches were likely to harm the Jews more. However, sources have shown that though the church did not directly support Nazi antisemitism, catholic anti-Judaism played a great role in fostering this hatred against the Jews. The false assumptions that most of the Nazis who participated in the killings and destruction of the Jews were Christians are unfounded and have no empirical evidence to support them. In conclusion, it can be said that the catholic church was strongly against the Nazi antisemitism but just like all other positions of power, there is still more that the church could have done to stop this war against the Jews.
Sunday, September 29, 2019
The days after that were like a dream. In fact, I honestly can't say how many days even passed. Maybe it was one. Maybe it was a hundred. I lost track of day and night too. My time was divided into Dimitri or not-Dimitri. He was my world. When he wasn't there, the moments were agony. I'd pass them as best I could, but they seemed to drag on forever. The TV was my best friend during those times. I'd lie on the couch for hours, only half following what was going on. In keeping with the rest of the suite's luxury, I had access to satellite television, which meant we were actually pulling in some American programming. Half the time, though, I wasn't sure that it really made a difference to me if the language was Russian or English. Inna continued her periodic checks on me. She brought my meals and did my laundry-I was wearing the dresses now-and waited around in that silent way of hers to see if I needed anything else. I never did-at least not from her. I only needed Dimitri. Each time she left, some distant part of me remembered I was supposed to do somethingÃ¢â¬ ¦ follow her, that was it. I'd had some plan to check out the exit and use her as a way to escape, right? Now, that plan no longer held the appeal. It seemed like a lot of work. And then, finally, Dimitri would visit, and the monotony would be broken. We'd lie together on my bed, wrapped in each other's arms. We never had sex, but we'd kiss and touch and lose ourselves in the wonder of each other's bodies-sometimes with very little clothing. After a while, I found it hard to believe I'd once been afraid of his new appearance. Sure, the eyes were a bit shocking, but he was still gorgeousÃ¢â¬ ¦ still unbelievably sexy. And after we'd talked and made out for a while-for hours, sometimes-I'd let him bite me. Then I'd get that rushÃ¢â¬ ¦ that wonderful, exquisite flood of chemicals that lifted me from all my problems. Whatever doubts I'd had about God's existence vanished in those moments because surely, surely I was touching God when I lost myself in that bite. This was heaven. Ã¢â¬Å"Let me see your neck,Ã¢â¬ he said one day. We were lying together as usual. I was on my side, and he was snuggled up against my back, one arm draped around my waist. I rolled over and brushed my hair away from where it had fallen over my neck and cleavage. The dress I wore today was a navy halter sundress, made of some light, clingy material. Ã¢â¬Å"Already?Ã¢â¬ I asked. He usually didn't bite me until the end of his visits. While part of me longed for that and waited in anticipation to feel that high again, I did kind of enjoy these moments beforehand. It was when the endorphins in my system were at their lowest, so I was able to manage some sort of conversation. We would talk about fights we'd been in or the life he imagined for us when I was Strigoi. Nothing too sentimental-but nice nonetheless. I braced myself for the bite now, arching up in anticipation. To my surprise, he didn't lean down and sink his teeth into me. He reached into his pocket and produced a necklace. It was either white gold or platinum-I didn't have the skill to tell which-and had three dark blue sapphires the size of quarters. He'd brought me a lot of jewelry this week, and I swore each piece was more beautiful than the last. I stared in amazement at its beauty, at the way the blue stones glittered in the light. He placed the necklace against my skin and fastened it behind my neck. Running his fingers along the necklace's edges, he nodded in approval. Ã¢â¬Å"Beautiful.Ã¢â¬ His fingers drifted to one of the dress's straps. He slid his hand underneath it, sending a thrill through my skin. Ã¢â¬Å"It matches.Ã¢â¬ I smiled. In the old days, Dimitri had almost never gotten me gifts. He hadn't had the means, and I hadn't wanted them anyway. Now, I was continually dazzled by the presents he seemed to have at each visit. Ã¢â¬Å"Where'd you get it?Ã¢â¬ I asked. The metal was cool against my flushed skin but nowhere near as cold as his fingers. He smiled slyly. Ã¢â¬Å"I have my sources.Ã¢â¬ That chastising voice in my head that sometimes managed to penetrate through the haze I lived in noted that I was involved with some sort of vampire gangster. Its warnings were immediately squashed and sank back down into my dreamy cloud of existence. Ho w could I be upset when the necklace was so beautiful? Something suddenly struck me as funny. Ã¢â¬Å"You're just like Abe.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Who?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"This guy I met. Abe Mazur. He's some kind of mob bossÃ¢â¬ ¦ he kept following me.Ã¢â¬ Dimitri stiffened. Ã¢â¬Å"Abe Mazur was following you?Ã¢â¬ I didn't like the dark look that had suddenly fallen over his features. Ã¢â¬Å"Yeah. So?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Why? What did he want with you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know. He kept wanting to know why I was in Russia but finally gave up and just wanted me to leave. I think somebody from home hired him to find me.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I don't want you near Abe Mazur. He's dangerous.Ã¢â¬ Dimitri was angry, and I hated that. A moment later, that fury faded, and he ran his fingers along my arm once more, pushing the strap down further. Ã¢â¬Å"Of course, people like that won't be an issue when you awaken.Ã¢â¬ Somewhere, in the back of my head, I wondered if Dimitri had the answers I wanted about Abe-about what Abe did. But talking about Abe had made Dimitri upset, and I cringed at that, hastily wanting to switch topics. Ã¢â¬Å"What have you been doing today?Ã¢â¬ I asked, impressed at my ability to make normal small talk. Between the endorphins and him touching me, coherence was difficult. Ã¢â¬Å"Errands for Galina. Dinner.Ã¢â¬ Dinner. A victim. I frowned. The feelings that inspired in me weren't of repulsion so much asÃ¢â¬ ¦ jealousy. Ã¢â¬Å"Do you drink from themÃ¢â¬ ¦ for fun?Ã¢â¬ He ran his lips along my neck, teeth taunting my skin but not biting. I gasped and pressed closer to him. Ã¢â¬Å"No, Roza. They're food; that's all. It's over quickly. You're the only one I take pleasure in.Ã¢â¬ I felt smug satisfaction in that, and that annoying mental voice pointed out that that was an incredibly sick and twisted view for me to have. I kind of hoped he would bite me soon. That usually shut the rational voice up. I reached up and touched his face, then ran my hand through that wonderful, silky hair that I'd always loved. Ã¢â¬Å"You keep wanting to awaken meÃ¢â¬ ¦ but we won't be able to do this anymore. Strigoi don't drink from each other, do they?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"No,Ã¢â¬ he agreed. Ã¢â¬Å"But it'll be worth it. We can do so much moreÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ He left the Ã¢â¬Å"so much moreÃ¢â¬ to my imagination, and a pleasant shiver ran through me. The kissing and blood taking were intoxicating, but there were some days that I did want, wellÃ¢â¬ ¦ more. The memories of the one time we'd made love haunted me when we were this close together, and I often longed to do it again. For whatever reason, he never pushed for sex, no matter how passionate things became. I wasn't sure if he was using that as a lure for me to turn or if there was some incompatibility between a Strigoi and a dhampir. Could the living and the dead do that? Once, I would have found the thought of sex with one of them absolutely repulsive. NowÃ¢â¬ ¦ I just didn't think about the complications so much. But although he didn't attempt sex, he would often taunt me with his caresses, touching my thighs and sternum and other dangerous places. Plus, he would remind me of what it had been like that one time, how amazing it had been, how our bodies had feltÃ¢â¬ ¦ His talk of such things was more taunting than affectionate, though. In my semi-clear moments, I honestly thought it was strange that I hadn't yet consented to becoming Strigoi. The endorphin fog made me agree to almost everything else he wanted. I'd fallen comfortably into dressing up for him, staying in my gilded prison, and accepting that he took a victim every couple days. Yet even in my most incoherent moments, even when I wanted him so badly, I couldn't agree to turning. There was some intrinsic part of me that refused to budge. Most of the time, he would shrug off my refusal, like it was a joke. But every once in a while when I declined, I'd see a spark of anger in his eyes. Those moments scared me. Ã¢â¬Å"Here it comes,Ã¢â¬ I teased. Ã¢â¬Å"The sales pitch. Eternal life. Invincible. Nothing to stand in our way.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"It's not a joke,Ã¢â¬ he said. Oops. My flippancy had brought that hardness back to him. The desire and fondness that I'd just seen now fractured into a million pieces and blew away. The hands that had just stroked me suddenly grabbed my wrists and held me in place as he leaned down. Ã¢â¬Å"We can't stay like this forever. You can't stay here forever.Ã¢â¬ Whoa, that voice said. Be careful. That doesn't sound good. His grip hurt, and I often wondered if that was his intent or if he just couldn't help his violence. When he finally released me, I wrapped my arm around his neck and tried to kiss him. Ã¢â¬Å"Can't we talk about that later?Ã¢â¬ Our lips met, fire blossoming between us and urgency coursing through my body. I could tell he had a matching desire, but a few seconds later, he broke away. The cold annoyance was still on his face. Ã¢â¬Å"Come on,Ã¢â¬ he said, pulling away from me. Ã¢â¬Å"Let's go.Ã¢â¬ He stood up, and I stared stupidly. Ã¢â¬Å"Where are we going?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Outside.Ã¢â¬ I sat up on the bed, dumbfounded. Ã¢â¬Å"OutÃ¢â¬ ¦ outside? ButÃ¢â¬ ¦ that's not allowed. We can't.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"We can do anything I want,Ã¢â¬ he snapped. He extended his hand and helped me up. I followed him to the door. He was as skilled as Inna at blocking me from the keypad, not that it mattered now. There was no way I could ever remember that long of a sequence anymore. The door clicked open, and he led me out. I stared in wonder, my dazed brain still trying to process this freedom. As I'd noticed that one day, the door led to a short corridor blocked by another door. It too was heavy and bore a keypad lock. Dimitri opened it, and I was willing to bet the two doors had different codes. Taking my arm, he guided me through that door and into another hallway. Despite his firm hold, I couldn't help but come to a standstill. Maybe I shouldn't have been surprised at the opulence I suddenly faced. After all, I was living in this place's penthouse suite. But the corridor leading out of my room had been stark and industrial-looking, and somehow I'd imagined the rest of the house to be equally institutional or prisonlike. It wasn't. Instead, I felt like I was in some old movie, the kind where people took tea in the parlor. The plush carpet was covered by a gold patterned runner that stretched off in both directions of the hall. Antique-looking paintings dotted the walls, showing people from ages ago in elaborate clothing that made my dresses look cheap and ordinary. The whole place was illuminated by tiny chandeliers that were spaced along the ceiling every six feet or so. The teardrop-shaped crystals caught the light with their facets, scattering small flecks of rainbows on the walls. I stared, enchanted by the glitter and the color, which is probably why I failed to notice one other fixture in the hall. Ã¢â¬Å"What are you doing?Ã¢â¬ The harsh sound of Nathan's voice jerked me from my crystal gazing. He'd been leaning against the wall opposite my door and straightened immediately upon seeing us. He had that same cruel expression on his face that was so characteristic of Strigoi, the one I occasionally saw on Dimitri, no matter how charming and kind he seemed sometimes. Dimitri's posture turned rigid and defensive. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm taking her for a walk.Ã¢â¬ He kind of sounded like he was talking about a dog, but my fear of Nathan trumped any offense I might take. Ã¢â¬Å"That's against the rules,Ã¢â¬ said Nathan. Ã¢â¬Å"Bad enough you've still got her here. Galina gave orders for you to keep her confined. We don't need some rogue dhampir running around.Ã¢â¬ Dimitri nodded toward me. Ã¢â¬Å"Does she look like she's a threat?Ã¢â¬ Nathan's eyes flicked over at me. I wasn't entirely sure what he saw. I didn't think I looked that different, but a small smirk crossed his lips that promptly disappeared when he turned back to Dimitri. Ã¢â¬Å"No, but I was ordered to babysit this door, and I'm not going to get in trouble for you taking a field trip.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I'll deal with Galina. I'll tell her I overpowered you.Ã¢â¬ Dimitri gave a fang-filled grin. Ã¢â¬Å"It shouldn't be that hard for her to believe.Ã¢â¬ The look Nathan gave Dimitri made me unconsciously step back until I hit the wall. Ã¢â¬Å"You're so full of yourself. I didn't awaken you so that you could act like you're in charge around here. I did it so that we could use your strength and inside knowledge. You should be answering to me.Ã¢â¬ Dimitri shrugged. Taking my hand, he started to turn away. Ã¢â¬Å"Not my fault if you're not strong enough to make me do it.Ã¢â¬ That was when Nathan lunged at Dimitri. Dimitri responded so quickly to the attack that I think he knew it would happen. He instantly released my hand, turned to catch hold of Nathan, and tossed the other Strigoi against the wall. Nathan immediately got up-it took more than that kind of hit to faze someone like him-but Dimitri was ready. He punched Nathan in the nose-once, twice, and then a third time, all in rapid succession. Nathan fell down, blood covering his face. Dimitri kicked him hard in the stomach and loomed over him. Ã¢â¬Å"Don't try it,Ã¢â¬ said Dimitri. Ã¢â¬Å"You'll lose.Ã¢â¬ He wiped Nathan's blood off of his hand and then laced his fingers through mine again. Ã¢â¬Å"I told you, I'll deal with Galina. But thanks for your concern.Ã¢â¬ Dimitri turned away again, apparently feeling there'd be no more attacks. There weren't. But as I started to follow him, I cast a quick glance over my shoulder to where Nathan sat on the floor. His eyes shot daggers at Dimitri, and I was pretty sure I'd never seen a look of such pure hatred-at least until he turned his gaze on me. I felt cold all over and stumbled to keep up with Dimitri. Nathan's voice rang out behind us. Ã¢â¬Å"You're not safe! Neither of you is. She's lunch, Belikov. Lunch.Ã¢â¬ Dimitri's hand tightened on mine, and he picked up the pace. I could feel the fury radiating off of him and suddenly wasn't sure whom I should be more afraid of: Nathan or Dimitri. Dimitri was a badass, alive or undead. In the past, I'd seen him attack foes without fear or hesitation. He'd always been magnificent, behaving just as bravely as I'd told his family. But in all those times, he'd always had a legitimate reason for fighting usually self defense. His confrontation with Nathan just then had been about more, though. It had been an assertion of dominance and a chance to draw blood. Dimitri had seemed to enjoy it. What if he decided to turn on me like that? What if my constant refusal pushed him into torture, and he hurt me until I finally agreed? Ã¢â¬Å"Nathan scares me,Ã¢â¬ I said, not wanting Dimitri to know that I feared him too. I felt weak and utterly defenseless, something that didn't happen to me very often. Usually, I was ready to take on any challenge, no matter how desperate. Ã¢â¬Å"He won't touch you,Ã¢â¬ Dimitri said harshly. Ã¢â¬Å"You have nothing to worry about.Ã¢â¬ We reached a set of stairs. After a few steps, it became clear that I wasn't going to be able to handle four flights. Aside from the drugged stupor his bites kept me in, the frequent blood loss was weakening me and taking its toll. Without saying a word, Dimitri swept me up in his arms and carried me downstairs effortlessly, gently setting me down when we reached the staircase's bottom. The main floor of the estate had the same grand feel as the upstairs hall. The entryway had a huge vaulted ceiling with an elaborate chandelier that dwarfed the little ones I'd seen. Ornate double doors faced us, set with stained-glass windows. What also faced us was another Strigoi, a man sitting in a chair and apparently on guard duty. Near him was a panel set into the wall with buttons and flashing lights. A modern security system set amongst all this old-world charm. His posture stiffened as we approached, and at first, I thought it was a natural bodyguard instinct-until I saw his face. It was the Strigoi I'd tortured that first night in Novosibirsk, the one I'd dispatched to tell Dimitri I was looking for him. His lips curled back slightly as he met my eyes. Ã¢â¬Å"Rose Hathaway,Ã¢â¬ said the Strigoi. Ã¢â¬Å"I remember your name-just like you told me.Ã¢â¬ He said no more than that, but I tightened my grip on Dimitri's hand as we passed. The Strigoi's eyes never left me until we'd stepped outside and shut the door behind us. Ã¢â¬Å"He wants to kill me,Ã¢â¬ I told Dimitri. Ã¢â¬Å"All Strigoi want to kill you,Ã¢â¬ Dimitri returned. Ã¢â¬Å"He really doesÃ¢â¬ ¦ I tortured him.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"I know. He's been in disgrace ever since then and lost some of his status here.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"That doesn't make me feel any better.Ã¢â¬ Dimitri seemed unconcerned. Ã¢â¬Å"Marlen is no one you need to worry about. You fighting him only proved to Galina that you're a good addition around here. He's beneath you.Ã¢â¬ I didn't find that overly reassuring. I was making too many personal Strigoi enemies-but then, it wasn't like I could really expect to be making Strigoi friends. It was nighttime, of course. Dimitri wouldn't have taken me out otherwise. The foyer had made me think we were at the front of the house, but the extensive gardens that spread out around us made me wonder if we were in the back now. Or maybe the entire house was wrapped in this kind of greenery. We were surrounded in a hedge maze cut with beautiful detail. Within the maze were small courtyards, decorated with fountains or statues. And everywhere were flowers and more flowers. The air was heavy with their scent, and I realized that someone had gone to an awful lot of trouble to find night-blooming ones. The only type I immediately recognized was jasmine, its long, white-flowered vines climbing up trellises and statues in the maze. We walked in silence for a bit, and I found myself lost in the romance of it all. The whole time Dimitri and I had been together at school, I'd been consumed with the fears of how we would juggle our relationship and our duty. A moment like this, walking in a garden on a spring night lit with stars, had seemed like a fantasy too crazy to even start to consider. Even without the difficulty of stairs, too much walking grew exhausting in my state. I came to a halt and sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"I'm tired,Ã¢â¬ I said. Dimitri stopped too and helped me sit down. The grass was dry and tickly against my skin. I lay back against it, and a moment later, he joined me. I had an eerie moment of deja vu, recalling the afternoon we'd made snow angels. Ã¢â¬Å"This is amazing,Ã¢â¬ I said, staring up at the sky. It was clear, no clouds in sight. Ã¢â¬Å"What's it like for you?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Hmm?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"There's enough light that I can see pretty clearly, but it's still dim compared to day. Your eyes are better than mine. What do you see?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"For me, it's as bright as day.Ã¢â¬ When I didn't respond, he added, Ã¢â¬Å"It could be like that for you, too.Ã¢â¬ I tried to picture that. Would the shadows seem as mysterious? Would the moon and stars shine so brightly? Ã¢â¬Å"I don't know. I kind of like the darkness.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Only because you don't know any better.Ã¢â¬ I sighed. Ã¢â¬Å"So you keep telling me.Ã¢â¬ He turned toward me and pushed the hair away from my face. Ã¢â¬Å"Rose, this is driving me crazy. I'm tired of this waiting. I want us to be together. Don't you like this? What we have? It could be even better.Ã¢â¬ His words sounded romantic, but not the tone. I did like this. I loved the haze I lived in, the haze in which all worries disappeared. I loved being close to him, loved the way he kissed me and told me he wanted meÃ¢â¬ ¦ Ã¢â¬Å"Why?Ã¢â¬ I asked. Ã¢â¬Å"Why what?Ã¢â¬ He sounded puzzled, something I hadn't heard yet in a Strigoi. Ã¢â¬Å"Why do you want me?Ã¢â¬ I had no idea why I even asked that. He apparently didn't know either. Ã¢â¬Å"Why wouldn't I want you?Ã¢â¬ He spoke in such an obvious way, like it was the stupidest question in the world. It probably was, I realized, and yetÃ¢â¬ ¦ I'd somehow been expecting another answer. Just then, my stomach twisted. With all the time I'd spent with Dimitri, I really had managed to push the Strigoi nausea off my radar. The presence of other Strigoi increased it, though. I'd felt it around Nathan, and I felt it now. I sat up, and Dimitri did too, almost at the same time. He'd likely been alerted by his superior hearing. A dark shape loomed over us, blotting out the stars. It was a woman, and Dimitri shot up. I stayed where I was, on the ground. She was strikingly beautiful, in a hard and terrible way. Her build was similar to mine, indicating she hadn't been a Moroi when turned. Isaiah, the Strigoi who'd captured me, had been very old, and power had radiated from him. This woman hadn't been around nearly so long, but I could sense that she was older than Dimitri and much stronger. She said something in Russian to him, and her voice was as cold as her beauty. Dimitri answered back, his tone confident yet polite. I heard Nathan's name mentioned a couple of times as they spoke. Dimitri reached down and helped me up, and I felt embarrassed at how often I needed his assistance, when I used to almost be a match for him. Ã¢â¬Å"Rose,Ã¢â¬ he said, Ã¢â¬Å"this is Galina. She's the one who has been kind enough to let you stay.Ã¢â¬ Galina's face didn't look so kind. It was devoid of all emotion, and I felt like my entire soul was exposed to her. While I was uncertain of a lot of things around here, I'd picked up enough to realize that my continual residence here was a rare and fragile thing. I swallowed. Ã¢â¬Å"Spasibo,Ã¢â¬ I said. I didn't know how to tell her it was nice to meet her-and honestly, I wasn't sure if it was-but I figured a simple thank-you was good enough. If she'd been his former instructor and trained at a normal Academy, she probably knew English and was faking it like Yeva. I had no clue why she'd do that, but if you could snap a teen dhampir's neck, you were entitled to do whatever you wanted. Galina's expression-or lack thereof-didn't change with my thanks, and she turned her attention back to Dimitri. They conversed over me, and Dimitri gestured to me a couple of times. I recognized the word for strong. Finally, Galina issued something that sounded final and left us without any sort of goodbye. Neither Dimitri nor I moved until I felt the nausea dissipate. Ã¢â¬Å"Come on,Ã¢â¬ he said. Ã¢â¬Å"We should get back.Ã¢â¬ We walked back through the maze, though I had no idea how he knew where to go. It was funny. When I'd first arrived, my dream had been to get outside and escape. Now that I was hereÃ¢â¬ ¦ well, it didn't seem that important. Galina's anger did. Ã¢â¬Å"What did she say?Ã¢â¬ I asked. Ã¢â¬Å"She doesn't like that you're still here. She wants me to awaken you or kill you.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Oh. Um, what are you going to do?Ã¢â¬ He stayed silent for a few seconds. Ã¢â¬Å"I'll wait a little longer and thenÃ¢â¬ ¦ I will make the choice for you.Ã¢â¬ He didn't specify which choice he'd be making, and I almost began my earlier pleas to die before becoming Strigoi. But suddenly, instead, I said, Ã¢â¬Å"How long?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Not long, Roza. You need to choose. And make the right choice.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"Which is?Ã¢â¬ He held up his hands. Ã¢â¬Å"All of this. A life together.Ã¢â¬ We'd emerged from the maze. I stared at the house-which was crazy enormous when viewed from the outside-and at the beautiful gardens around us. It was like something from a dream. Beyond that, endless countryside rolled away, eventually becoming lost in the darkness and blending into the black sky-except for one tiny part that had a soft purple glow on the horizon. I frowned, studying it, then turned my attention back to Dimitri. Ã¢â¬Å"And what then? Then I work for Galina too?Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"For a while.Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"How long is a while?Ã¢â¬ We came to a stop outside the house. Dimitri looked down into my eyes, his face alight with a look that made me take a step back. Ã¢â¬Å"Until we kill her, Rose. Until we kill her and take all of this for ourselves.Ã¢â¬
Saturday, September 28, 2019
Comparing and contrasting marketing activity - Essay Example ortant observation that the experts make is that the reach of the end customers of today has increased by huge extent, thanks to the factors like globalisation and liberalisation. The international geographical border are almost non Ã¢â¬â existent in terms of trade and finance and the revolution brought in by inter Ã¢â¬â net has enable citizens to purchase goods or services within a few clicks of the computer mouse from any part of the world. The other important thing has been the information flow. The end consumers are informed like never before and it is this factor that distinguishes between the identical products and services. There is little doubt that marketing is the life blood of business. However good the product or service might be, if it cannot be sold in the market and revenue earned; every effort falls flat. The process of marketing is truly a dynamic one and depends largely on each and every minute changes in the buying behaviour or the related environment of the target group of customers. Today, with the boom in the service sector, the impact of marketing activities are more felt. The report analyses various activities of a marketing process namely product mix, positioning, price mix, communications and distribution of two segments i.e. high - street fashion and convenience foods. In other words, the report focuses upon the marketing mix of the two segments that operate in the similar market. The report basically deals with the market of the United Kingdom i.e. the economies of England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Wales. The economy of United Kingdom is one of the most affluent among the world economies, being the sixth largest economy in the world and the third largest in the whole of Europe. The chosen companies for the report in this market segment are the famous fashion brand Ã¢â¬ËPaul SmithÃ¢â¬â¢ and the leading convenient food store Ã¢â¬ËSparÃ¢â¬â¢. Both the companies are catering to the markets of the United Kingdom for quite a long time now and have
Friday, September 27, 2019
Research and write an article on the human genome and how genetic var iation in the genome has a potential use in health screening - Case Study Example This further comprises of Y chromosome (found in males only) and X chromosomes (two in females and one in males). A mitochondrial DNA is also inclusive in every mitochondrion. The genomes are further classified into noncoding and coding DNA sequences. The coding sequence is unique in that they are transcribed into mRNA to be later converted into proteins in a human lifetime. The other noncoding genomes which use the biggest fraction are not involved in encoding proteins but are instead used for other biological processes (Adolph 1997) Human biology, however, comprises of both the inherited and the environmental traits. It is important to understand that the environment human beings are exposed to can catalyze the occurrence of a disease when coupled with a genetic disorder. For example, an asthma patient is more likely to get an asthmatic attack when exposed to cold and dusty conditions as opposed to an average person. An individual can be said to have a sequence variation when there is an excess or complete absence of a chromosome. Epialleles are defined as identical genes but with differences only exhibited in their epigenetic states (Bodmer 1997). Further classified into three types, epialleles influenced by genotype, determined directly by the genotype of the individual and those purely independent of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s genotype, they are influenced by environmental factors be they hormones or diet. Compared to animals such as chimpanzees that are purported to share a common ancestry with human beings, human beings have undergone a more sophisticated evolution as compared to chimps. (Charles R.Cantor, 2004). Human beings also exhibit many traits of diseases such as Klinefelter Syndrome, sickle cell anemia among others. Genetic screening is defined as the search or screening for persons with symptomatic diseases with the aim to identify individuals with a genotype that predisposes them
Thursday, September 26, 2019
The Impact of Stock Markets on Economic Growth - Essay Example This paper describes the mechanism of the of the impact of stock market on long-term economic indicators, regarding the growth of the economy. Main channels of stock markets influence on economic growth of a country are specified. It is known that stock markets are connected with the economic growth through the creation of liquidity. It means that really profitable investments demand just long-turn capital commitment, but investors donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to relinquish their capital for such long time without any control. Actually liquid stock markets make their investments more secure and in such way more attractive. Stock markets allow investors to acquire equity (an asset) and then to sell it rather quickly and without any problems. Liquid stock markets facilitate long-term investments and make them more profitable. It is apparent that stock markets are necessary and important for growth, because they improve capital allocation and in such a way they enhance prospects for long-term economic development. Stock markets as it was mentioned above make investments more secure and attractive. Actually well-functioning stock market is useful and necessary for economic development through following issues: growth of investments and savings, effective and efficient resources allocation, better distribution and utilization of existing resources. Volatility of stock markets had negative influence in France and Japan. Stock market volatility didnÃ¢â¬â¢t affect greatly the United Kingdom. Concerning Germany the volatility was stated to be insignificant.
Wednesday, September 25, 2019
Multiculturalism in teaching and learning Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words
Multiculturalism in teaching and learning - Essay Example Multicultural education in Australia is believed to serve two main purposes: on the one hand, prepare all students to live in a multicultural society; on the other hand, ensure equal future opportunities for migrant and native students. Besides, multicultural education encompasses several dimensions. James A. Banks, one of the most influential and renowned multiculturalist, outlines five of them: integration, knowledge construction, prejudice reduction, equity pedagogy, and an empowering school culture (Banks, 2003). These dimensions additionally emphasize the multifaceted and broad nature of multicultural education. Yet, it will be misleading to forget that the concept remains a relatively new one that continues to change: the key question is whether multicultural education is still relevant these days or new challenges produced by modern society has gradually turned it obsolete The answers given to this question vary amazingly. Many believe that multicultural educational policies help students develop new human capabilities and new identities in order to properly respond to the increasing need to recognize cultural diversity.
Tuesday, September 24, 2019
Apart from assessing the impact of industrialization upon women, it is also important that our understanding of industrialization itself is determined by the gender division of the workforce - Essay Example ding to the participation of the women in the paid workforce, it is the unpaid household work that accrued new meanings and perceptions, making the eventual understanding of industrial revolution dependant on the vantage point from which a workforce divided on the gender lines tends to envisage it. It is not that earlier the women were not engaged in any kind of work. However, a gendered division of work relegated the women to engage in the unpaid household work, while men were considered to be the primary wage earners who went out and worked to bring the bread to the family table (Crompton 1997). In that context, the industrial revolution while encouraging women to move out and engage in wage labour also to a large extent impacted the economic value and cultural tags associated with the household unpaid work (Crompton 1997). This revised understanding of the household unpaid work in the light of the industrial revolution had far reaching consequences in the overall gender dynamics of the nation. In a preindustrial society, governed by the gendered division of work, the unpaid household work done by women commanded much recognition and a measure of economic worth. However, in an industrialized society, though much of the household chores associated with women like caring for c hildren, cleaning, cooking and the overall management of the household economy and social standing remained the same, in a cultural context, they lost much esteem with the advent of the industrial revolution. This division of labour which hitherto stood to be gendered, in the aftermath of industrial revolution emerged to be a gendered definition of labour, a trend which was amply calcified and consolidated by the industrial revolution. The eventual impact of this degradation of the gendered division of labor into a perceptual gendered defining of labour to a large extent devalued the economic importance of the contributions made by women in the domestic sphere, though to this day they tend
Monday, September 23, 2019
Finance - Valid Contract - Assignment Example Before a contract becomes legally binding, there are some essentials that must be satisfied otherwise referred to as elements of a contract. Elements of a valid contract are: 1. Offer and acceptance In a contract, there are two parties: the offeror and the offerree. The offeror makes an offer that has to be accepted by the offered without alteration of the terms i.e. the offer must be accepted precisely (Burnett, 2010). The promise by one party to do or not to do something if the party accepts to do or not do something in return is referred to as an offer. Where the offered gives new terms in order to accept the contact, then this will be referred to as a counter offer. Both an offer and acceptance must be communicated (Burnett, 2010). Advertisement, preliminary negotiations or opinions does not constitute an offer but are considered an action to treat. 2. Intention to create a legal relation An agreement in itself does not constitute a contract unless the parties to the contract int end to be legally bound in their agreement hence an agreement between minors does not constitute a contract (Liuzzo, 2010). Proof of creating a legal binding agreement is therefore mandatory. 3. Consideration Consideration is the price paid in return of the promise of another party. The consideration must have value not necessarily money. An interest, a right, or benefit to the party making a promise. Furthermore, the consideration must not be something that is illegal e.g. committing a crime, as a price is not considered as a consideration. It should be noted that the adequacy or inadequacy of the consideration does not affect the validity of the contract (Burnett, 2010). One only needs to prove that there was consideration in the formation of the contract. 4. Capacity to contract Not everybody can enter into a contract because of legal limitation. Minors, people with mental impairment, prisoners and bankrupt individuals or corporation therefore lack the legal capacity to enter int o a valid contract. This is because the parties might lack the ability to understand fully the implication of the contracts (Liuzzo, 2010). Contracts with minors are also invalid because they might be compromised. However, contracts with minors are enforceable where the contact is of the supply of necessities e.g. supply of cloth, medicine, and food in some cases. 5. Consent willingly attained In entering a valid contract, the parties must have made the decision freely and willingly without any interference or coercion. A proof that either parties consent was not freely obtained will make the contract void. The factors that may affect proper consent include mistakes, duress, undue influence, or false statements. Mistakes will make contracts not binding if it relates to the very basis of the agreements e.g. mistake in signing of the agreement. False statements may be fraudulent, innocent, or negligent. Negligent and fraudulent false statements would normally result in rendering the c ontract void and therefore unenforceable. Undue influence on the other hand entails where one party takes advantage of the weaknesses of the other party to enter into a contract hence impairing voluntary consent to contract e.g. the contract between a teacher and student may be unduly influences. For duress, there must be some element of threat to a party hence making him/her contract unwillingly. 6. Legality of a contract In
Sunday, September 22, 2019
Movie about arranged - Assignment Example evident in the film when RochelÃ¢â¬â¢s brother asks her if there were Ã¢â¬Å"shvartzasÃ¢â¬ a derogatory slang name for blacks in Yiddish at the school where she works. It becomes clear that the father also shares the same prejudice as his son when he asks Rochel if all her students are blacks. In a Jewish marriage, the man is the head of the family and the provider. If the daughter of the house is getting married, he is the one who protects her and exercises authority on the suitors sent to her by the matchmaker. During the dating period, he asks the girl out on a date, which takes place at a public venue. In the Muslim setup, the man is the head of the family and his authority is never to be challenged directly. When selected as a potential suitor he meets with the girl in her parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ home and the meeting takes place under their supervision. Therefore, the man is portrayed in both marriage settings as the figure of
Saturday, September 21, 2019
Christian Worldview Essay Worldview Part I What is a worldview? Ã¢â¬Å"A worldview, is a response of our heart or inner being; our intellect, emotion or will. It is the total framework we bring to decision-makingÃ¢â¬ (Weider Gutierrez, 2011, p.51). An example is the Christian worldview. The way we as Christians behave should be in direct correlation with the teachings of Jesus as to how we should live our lives. People who hold to the Christian worldview should act as if everything they do matters. Many Christians these days do not act in a consistent manner to what their worldview is (Keener). Part II The question of Origin, Genesis 1:1 (ESV Bible) shows God creating the heavens and the earth in the beginning. Ã¢â¬Å"God is the infinite, personal, sovereign and good being who created the universeÃ¢â¬ (Lefebvre, 2011). Isaiah 45:18 (ESV Bible) describes how God created the heavens and formed the earth and create it and intended it to be inhabitated. The question of Identity- Genesis 1:27(ESV Bible) God created man in His own image. Psalm 139:14(ESV Bible) I am fearfully and wonderfully made. It is because we are made in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s image that sets us apart from all other aspects of creation. This identity with God bestows upon us great distinction. We have to understand as clearly as possible what it means to be created in the image and likeness of God (Naugle, 2010). The Question of Meaning/Purpose- We as Christians believe that our purpose is to do the will of God. John 15:16(ESV Bible) we are appointed to go and bear fruit. In Matthew 28:19(ESV Bible) we are commanded to go and make disciples. Through-out the Bible, God has charged us with being the salt of the earth and light of the world, He has commanded us to go and compel them to come so that his house may be filled. As we can see our main purpose is to live a life that exemplifies Christ and leads others to Him. The Question of Morality- Romans 5:12-14(ESV Bible) sin entered the world. Romans 3:23(ESV Bible) we all have sinned and fall short of the Glory of God. God is the ultimate standard of morality and because of the depravity of man we cannot live up to His standard, thus needing redemption through the blood of the Lamb, Jesus Christ. The Question of Destiny- it is clear throughout the Bible about our final destination. JohnÃ 3:16-17, John 5:13-14 (ESV Bible) and many other verses in the Bible make it clear that if we do not put our faith and trust in God and accept the gift of salvation that we will not spend eternal life with Him but rather burn in the lake of fire. God also makes it clear that the gift of salvation cannot be earned Eph. 2:8-9. Part III A biblical worldview should influence the way you think about, treat, and speak to others on a daily basis because we should treat people how we would want to be treated, Matthew 7:12 (ESV Bible). If we are to believe that God created us in His likeness and He commands us to go out and make disciples for Him then we would have to also believe that we should think, treat and speak to others in a Christ like manner on a daily basis. To not do so would make us as Christians look hypocritical in the eyes of non-believers. Ã¢â¬ ¦.treat/interact with the environment and non-human creation? In Genesis 1:26(ESV Bible) God commands us to have dominion over the earth and subdue it. This does not mean that we can ravage the land and kill all the creatures on it. We are to be stewards of what God has given us and that includes the earth and the creatures on it. References Keener, D. (n.d.). What is a worldview?. Retrieved from http://www.dkeener.com/keenstuff/wv.html Lefebvre, M. (2011, April 02). Worldviews-christian. Retrieved from http://warrantedbelief.wordpress.com/2011/04/02/worldviews-christianity/ Naugle, D. (2010, February 14). Developing a biblical worldview. Retrieved from http://www.colsoncenter.org/the-center/columns/indepth/14423-developing-a-biblical-worldview Tackett, D. (n.d.). Whats a christian worldview?. Retrieved from http://www.focusonthefamily.com/faith/christian_worldview/whats_a_christian_worldview.aspx Weider, L., Gutierrez, B. (2011). Consider. Virginia Beach: Academic Publishing Services, Inc.
Friday, September 20, 2019
Athletic Directors Leadership Traits and Job Satisfaction This chapter will provide a review of the literature and research related to the purpose of the study. Because research identifying specific leadership traits of high school athletic directors is almost nonexistent, this literature review begins with a summary of: (a) leadership defined (b) general educational leadership traits and theories, (c) roles and responsibilities, (d) job satisfaction and finish with the (e) summary. Leadership Defined Leadership is a term that can be found throughout all workplaces. The meaning of leadership can be defined in a variety of ways. According to Fiedler (1967), leadership is defined by managing group work with appropriate control and organization. According to Dr. Jamie Williams (Sugarman, 1999), leadership is like gravity. You know its there, you know it exists, but how do you define it? Nahavandi (2008) explained that researchers disagree with leadership definitions because of the fact that leadership is a complicated phenomenon mixed with the leader, the follower, and the situation. For example, Coach John Woodens ability to motivate his mens basketball program at UCLA to win 11 national championships during his coaching tenure provides evidence of Woodens transformational leadership. Wooden inspired his players to play to the best of their ability and to never accept losing. He was also instrumental in making sure that his players stayed very humble in the process. Hughes et al. (2008) explained that some researchers have paid attention to the leaders personal traits while others have focused on the relationship between leaders and followers or situational factors that influence leadership behavior. Roach and Behling (1984) defined leadership as the procedure of guiding an organized team toward achieving its objectives. This is definition is accepted by any sports team that wins a championship or achieves their team goals. Rost (1993) defined leadership as influence dynamics among leaders and followers who attempt to bring true organizational changes that reflect their common goals. Daft (1999) stated that in the new era represented by a dramatic change, an old philosophy of control-oriented leadership is not effective anymore, and that leaders should make effort to retain soft elements of leadership qualities in addition to hard management skills. Watkins and Rikard (1991) defined leadership as the process of influencing the activities of an organized group toward goal achievement. There are many categories, given the different ways the influencing process is played out. Three such categories are transactional leadership transformational leadership, and situational leadership. Leadership Traits and Theories Theories of leadership have evolved and debate over the act of leadership, and what is required, continues. This study will explore the leadership traits of high school athletic directors and if they correlate with job satisfaction. According to Young, et al (2010), the documentation of educational leadership traits for high school athletic directors is scarce. However, the traits of organization, roles and responsibilities and job satisfaction of high school athletic directors are prevalent in previous research. Since the twentieth century there have been many researching leadership and creating theories to go with their findings (Dulewicz Higgs, 2003; Grint, 2000; Higgs, 2002; Kets de Vries, 1993). Leadership theories can be grouped into one of eight theory categories. These eight theories are the Great Man theory, trait theories, contingency theory, situational theories, behavioral theories, participative theories, management theories and relationship theories. This research will look into the details of the trait theory, behavioral theories, situational theories, and transformational and transactional leadership. Trait theories will identify which characteristics are shared by leaders. According to Shead (2010) since certain traits are associated with proficient leadership, it assumes that if you could identify people with the correct traits, you will be able to identify leaders and people with leadership potential. Trait theory takes on the assumption that leaders are born with leadership traits or not. This idea appears to be incorrect. Shead (2010) states that it is possible for someone to change their character traits for the worse and that someone who is known for being honest can learn to become deceitful. In addition, someone who is deceitful can learn to become honest. Often times we look for honesty, drive, goal oriented, competent and intelligent people to become our leaders. Between 1940 and into the late 1990s, researchers (e.g., Dulewicz Higg s, 2003; Partington, 2003) categorized approaches to leadership theory improvements into several schools, according to time order. Trait school, behavioral school, contingency school, and visionary school were considered the four major trait schools. The trait school leadership theories were largely popular in the 1940s. Stogdill (1974) referred to the Great Man Theory, which stated that leaders are different from followers due to common leader traits. Additionally, Turner (1999) supported Stogdills (1974) claim about leaders being different from followers by explaining that leaders are born into being great leaders and not made into great leaders. Hogan (1991) explained that traits refer to repetitive patterns in a persons behavior and the trait approach attempts to explain peoples behavioral trends in terms of certain strengths of traits that they retain. Stogdill (1974) also stated that leaders traits are shown through hardwork, friendliness, conscientiousness, and willingness to take on responsibility rather than personality, ambition and physical makeup such as height. Turners (1999) research supports Stogdill (1974) by showing that effective managers have traits such as energy and drive, self-confidence, and highly effectiv e communication skills. The behavioral approach to leadership was well studied between the 1940s and 1960s. During this time period, researchers from the University of Michigan and The Ohio State University posited that leaders behaviors can be explained within two independent factors called consideration and initiating structure (Fleishman, 1973; Halpin Winer, 1957). According to the Ohio State researchers, the term consideration applies to the degree in which leaders show support and friendship towards followers, while the phrase initiating structure applies to the manner in which leaders stress the importance of achieving goals and tasks. According to Bower Seashore (1966), the behavioral students conducted by the University of Michigan researchers posited that effective group performance shows a relationship with four dimensions of leadership behaviors: support, interaction facilitation, goal emphasis, and work facilitation. The leader support behaviors shows a relationship with concern for subordinat es, while interaction facilitation shows a relationship with reconciling relational conflicts among group members. Bower and Seashore (1966) explained that in sum, goal emphasis and work facilitation are job-centered dimensions, but leaders support and interaction facilitation are employee-centered dimensions. Recent studies by (e.g., Curphy, 2003; Smither, London, Flautt, Vargas, Kucine, 2003) have claimed that considering certain leadership behaviors are adopted for effective leadership, leadership can be developed. The behavioral school states that, leaders can change their behavior via reflection, organizational development systems, and 360-degree feedback amongst others (McCauley, Ruderman, Ohlott, Morrow, 1994). According to Bass (1985), these two categories are points on a continuum of leadership behavior. Athletic directors are going to fall into one of the two leadership categories. Bass (1998) described transformational leadership as behavior that transcends the need for rewards and appeals to the followers higher order needs, inspiring them to act in the best interest of the organization rather than their own self-interest. Thus, leaders must possess high ethical and moral standards in order to provide the highest reward to the organization. One might infer that even the most ethically and morally charged athletic director cannot possibly provide the highest rewards each and every year to the organization that he/she represents. However, ethics and morals are two very important characteristics in an individual when determining the type of leader one might become. Leadership styles are known to change, and thus a transformational leader could dip into the realm of transactional leadership and vice versa. Generally, personality and character traits can provide us with the determination as to whether or not you are a transformational or transactional leader. According to Bass (1998) transformational leadership is universally applicable. He proposed that regardless of culture, transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or organization. Followers become motivated to expend greater effort than would usually be expected. If an AD exemplified Basss transformational leadership model, coaches in the school would offer up all that they have to support the athletic director and school that they work for. For example, the athletic director buys-in to the complete offerings of his/her current employer as we continue to transform the area of athletics. According to Sugarman (1999), excellence in leadership is acquired by people who have a strong sense of vision, have passion and are able to get people to commit 100% and take the necessary action to see that vision becomes a reality. Great leaders excel in the art of communication and motivation, mutual respect, instilling confidence and enthusiasm, and showing credibility and integrity on a consistent basis. Various high school athletic directors and coaches all across the United States create programs teaching their student athletes leadership styles and how they can be applied. One popular program that was used to establish athletic leadership for Wheeler High Schools football team in Valparaiso, Indiana is based off the acronym for L.E.A.D.E.R.S.H.I.P. Coach Snodgrass of Wheeler High School utilized the L.E.A.D.E.R.S.H.I.P. program that he learned while attending the Indiana Football Coaches Association Annual Clinic in 2003. According to Snodgrass (2004), the acronym is as foll ows: Influence, Integrity, Communication, Attitude, Courage, Sacrifice, Goals, Servant-Hood, Vision, and Perseverance. Each one of these terms forms a strong resilient leadership program for any athletic program. The athletic director must decide how important it is for him or her to provide this type of leadership program to his or her student athletes, school administration, and school community. With the proper education comes an ability to manage, facilitate, and guide. A true leader, however, does not simply read books or study what leadership should be. Rather, a true leader is someone who shows transformational or transactional traits naturally. Providing a program like the one that Wheeling High School provided for its football players shows that the leadership is transformational at this school. Giving the students an opportunity to understand what leadership is all about and how leadership is applied in everyday life allowed those football players at Wheeling High School i n Valparaiso, IN to become stronger individuals in the classroom, community, and field. The football coach for this team showed his athletic director a true meaning of transformational leadership. Bolman and Deal (2003) stated that leadership is universally offered as a panacea for almost any social problem (p. 336). Within the athletic arena, leadership is a term used to describe any event which coaches, staff members, administrators, and ADs go above and beyond their normal work day. Bolman and Deal (2003) noted further that if leaders lose their legitimacy then they lose the capacity to lead. For example, a high school athletic director has authority but not necessarily leadership. Additionally, a leader is also not necessarily a manager. Many managers do not know how to lead. Bennis and Nanus (1985) asserted that managers do things right, and leaders do the right thing. It is very important for high school athletic directors to understand the distinction between the terms leader and manager because high school athletic directors will not produce a successful leadership style if they cannot distinguish differences in leading and managing. Leadership and management can be situational. According to Hersey and Blanchard (2001) the situational leadership model combines task and people into a two-by-two chart, which shows four possible leadership styles: telling, selling, participating, and delegating. Bolman and Deal (2003) stated this model distinguishes four levels of subordinate readiness and argues that the appropriate leadership style depends on the situation. The four styles are as follows: Leadership through participation involves having a high relationship with ones subordinates with low tasks involved. This style is used when followers are able but unwilling or insecure to accomplish the task at hand. According to Sugarmann (1999), Vince Lombardi says, Leaders are made, they are not born; and they are made just like anything else has ever been made in this country by hard work. Additionally, Sugarmann (1999) stated that leading by example is paramount to becoming known as a great leader. Leadership through selling is exemplified when there is a high relationship value with followers and the tasks level is high. This style is used when followers are unable, but willing or motivated to accomplish the tasks at hand. The third style is leadership through delegation, and this is used with there is minimal relationship with followers and a low task requirement. The style is used when followers are able and willing or motivated to accomplish the tasks at hand. The four possible leadership styles explained by Hersey and Blanchards (2001) situational leadership model are significant in the maturation process of a high school athletic director. Each one of these leadership styles could be used during varying circumstances within the athletic directors position. Hersey and Blanchards (2001) situational leadership concept provides supporting information that in order to become an effective leader one must consider all four styles within the situational leadership model. Situational Leadership Situational leadership is another theory that focuses on the development of the follower and styles of each leader being exhibited. Hersey and Blanchard (2001) stated that there are four leadership styles (S1 to S4) that match the development levels (D1 to D4) of the followers. The four styles suggest that leaders should put greater or less focus on the task in question and/or the relationship between the leader and the follower, depending on the development level of the follower. The four leadership styles are named, S1 telling and directing, S2 selling and coaching, S3 participating and supporting and S4 delegating and observing. Hersey and Blanchard (2001) situational theory is broken down as follows: S1: Telling / Directing Follower: R1: Low competence, low commitment / Unable and unwilling or insecure Leader: High task focus, low relationship focus When the follower cannot do the job and is unwilling or afraid to try, then the leader takes a highly directive role, telling them what to do but without a great deal of concern for the relationship. The leader may also provide a working structure, both for the job and in terms of how the person is controlled. The leader may first find out why the person is not motivated and if there are any limitations in ability. These two factors may be linked, for example where a person believes they are less capable than they should be may be in some form of denial or other coping. They follower may also lack self-confidence as a result. If the leader focused more on the relationship, the follower may become confused about what must be done and what is optional. The leader thus maintains a clear do this position to ensure all required actions are clear. S2: Selling / Coaching Follower: R2: Some competence, variable commitment / Unable but willing or motivated Leader: High task focus, high relationship focus When the follower can do the job, at least to some extent, and perhaps is over-confident about their ability in this, then telling them what to do may demotivate them or lead to resistance. The leader thus needs to sell another way of working, explaining and clarifying decisions. The leader thus spends time listening and advising and, where appropriate, helping the follower to gain necessary skills through coaching methods. Note: S1 and S2 are leader-driven. S3: Participating / Supporting Follower: R3: High competence, variable commitment / Able but unwilling or insecure Leader: Low task focus, high relationship focus When the follower can do the job, but is refusing to do it or otherwise showing insufficient commitment, the leader need not worry about showing them what to do, and instead is concerned with finding out why the person is refusing and thence persuading them to cooperate. There is less excuse here for followers to be reticent about their ability, and the key is very much around motivation. If the causes are found then they can be addressed by the leader. The leader thus spends time listening, praising and otherwise making the follower feel good when they show the necessary commitment. S4: Delegating / Observing Follower: R4: High competence, high commitment / Able and willing or motivated Leader: Low task focus, low relationship focus When the follower can do the job and is motivated to do it, then the leader can basically leave them to it, largely trusting them to get on with the job although they also may need to keep a relatively distant eye on things to ensure everything is going to plan. Followers at this level have less need for support or frequent praise, although as with anyone, occasional recognition is always welcome. Note: S3 and S4 are follower-led (p. 259-261). Roles and Responsibilities The focus on the athletic director as an employee, leader, and representative of interscholastic athletics is needed to understand the gravity of where athletic directors come from and who they have become today. Todays athletic directors have many difficult tasks. It is their job to ensure that interscholastic athletics perform at a very high level. In addition, it is imperative that athletic directors maintain the integrity of the student-athlete. Davis (2002) states that previously, leadership ability was assumed because of athletic success. Today, those in athletic director positions are getting more training and education in administrative leadership. The training and education allow the athletic director to begin providing leadership at the beginning of his/her job. Thus, the success of the interscholastic athletic program hinges on the type of leadership training and education received by the athletic director. Athletic directors job descriptions will continue to evolve as the requirements to managing a successful program evolve. One sample written job description of an athletic director for a small private school in Florida shows that their athletic director will perform the following duties: direct the athletic program, assure that the school complies with all policies and procedures of the Florida High School Athletic Association (FHSAA), supervise the scheduling of all athletic contests, identify and recommend the hiring and firing of coaches for each sport, ensure that all school policies and procedures are followed by the entire coaching staff (including, assistant coaches), in addition to many other duties as assigned by the headmaster of the school. After reviewing this job description one could see how little time there might be for an athletic director to provide direct leadership. With all of the tasks listed within the job description the athletic director must provide leadershi p more via example, rather than through direct communication with his/her student-athletes and coaching staff. Doing nothing more than following the specific tasks list of the job description above would associate the athletic director with transactional rather than transformational leadership. Simply following the task list of the job description would essentially provide the student-athletes with a basic and universal athletic program. The athletic director would also be performing his or her job duties for the sake of getting the most basic job done. This shows the community that the interest level of providing leadership on a much higher level to the community, student-athletes, and administration is obsolete. Most people are able to complete the tasks that are provided for them by a school administration. What exactly does this do for the advancement and recognition of the efforts put forth by the student-athletes, as well as teaching the student-athletes and coaches the value of having strong ethics and morals? The next sample job description is from a public school in Virginia: Athletic Director Requirements and Responsibilities are to work with administration and the assistant athletic director to create and maintain a comprehensive program for student activities that emphasizes positive public relations, coaching performance, and student recognition, utilize a computerized software program for scheduling, prepares and distributes schedules for athletic and academic competitions, including contracts where required, supervise the preparation and distribution of eligibility lists, ensure that all students participating in athletic or academic competition are eligible, and have a Virginia High School License (VHSL) physical form and Stonewall Jackson High Schools Handbook (SJHS) sign off on file, oversee the athletic/academic activities budget, approve all athletic expenditures, follow school procedures for ordering, and determine allocations for athletic/academic program with the principal, obtain officials, ticket takers, clock operators, announcers, etc. f or all home events, work with the transportation department to arrange transportation for away events and practices where necessary, attend district, regional, and state VHSL meetings, ensure that annual equipment and uniform inventories are conducted by head coaches, and assist head coaches in updating equipment/uniforms, assist principal in selection of coaching staff, complete evaluation form for each head coach with an endorsement by the principal at the end of the season, ensure that head coaches submit required documentation in a timely fashion at the end of each season, including evaluation form for assistant coaches, inventories, end of season reports, etc, work with the Booster Club in coordinating their activities, including presenting requests for funding for all programs to the Booster Club, submit news releases on awards, etc. to local media, supervise the maintenance of the Sports Zone web page and ensure that it is up-to-date at all times, inform local media, official s, coaches, bus drivers and administrators immediately upon cancellation of an event and rescheduled dates as soon as available; post cancellations/rescheduled games on web site, prepare money for ticket takers, water for officials, scoreboard, PA system, etc. for home events, supervise events in conjunction with the building administrators, serve as a liaison between school clubs, departments and administration for scheduling events which do not conflict with VHSL athletic and academic events, work with custodial staff for proper maintenance of facilities and equipment. When comparing the two job descriptions above, one can see how important the athletic director position is to interscholastic athletics. Each athletic director shares many of the same responsibilities regardless of the population within the school with which they are employed. As an employee, the Athletic Director is the second most important position next to the schools Principal. High school athletic directors are vital to ensuring that the climate of the school which they direct will stay positive and energized. The athletic director as a leader is an integral part of the school system. Each year, the job description of athletic directors becomes more complex. Recently, responsibilities added to the athletic directors job description are (a) purchasing and distribution of equipment, supplies, and uniforms, (b) planning and scheduling for the use of facilities, (c) public relations, (d) fund-raising, (e) legal and medical protection for coaches and student-athletes, (f) compliance with national and state policies and procedures, (g) administration of events, (h) completion of the goals and objectives of the school, and (i) implementation and management of media events (Smith, 1993). These responsibilities make it highly unlikely that just one individual can effectively manage a successful interscholastic athletic program, especially at a large school with a c omprehensive athletic program. ADs must be willing to put the time and effort into getting the job done. According to Barnhill, (1998) in order to do so, a high school athletic director must call on his/her support staff, such as coaches and other administrators at the school. Additionally, Barnhill (1998) stated the high school athletic director must be a leader with the ability to delegate and manage delegated tasks. If the athletic director fails at delegating and managing the tasks necessary to lead a successful athletic program, his/her coaches will begin to lose faith in the athletic directors ability to lead. The many responsibilities that an athletic director assumes when taking a position within administration are largely dictated by the athletic directors fellow administrators. The athletic directors position is supported by many other administrators such as the director of development, dean of students, director of advising, director of admissions, and director of college recruitment to name a few. The director of development will help the athletic director with fundraising for athletics, the dean of students assists the athletic director with student-athlete disciplinary issues, the director of admissions assists the athletic director in qualifying the students for eligibility, and the director of college recruitment assists the athletic director in qualifying student athletes for colle ge recruitment. With all of these administrators working together the leadership within the school is strong and successful. The athletic directors ability to recruit co-workers to assist in leading the department of athletics as well as the institution itself would classify him/her as a transformational leader. As stated earlier according to, Bass (1997) transformational leadership is universally applicable. He proposed that regardless of culture, transformational leaders inspire followers to transcend their own self-interests for the good of the group or organization. In order for this to occur the transformational leader must possess certain characteristics to inspire followers. According to Parks and Quarterman (2003) stated, those characteristics include: trusting his or her subordinates, meaning that a good leader will make use of employees energy and talent. The key to productive relationship is mutual trust. Secondly, develop a vision for employees to follow a visionary leader. They want to know what they are working for. Thirdly, keeping his or her cool, explains that leaders demonstrate their met tle in crisis under fire. They inspire others to remain calm and to act intelligently. Fourth, they are experts at what they do, informing us that employees are much more likely to follow a leader that radiates confidence, is intuitive, and continues to master the profession. Fifth, they invite dissent, meaning a leader is willing to accept a variety of opinions and integrate them. Sixth, they simplify the position, so that leaders can focus on what is important and reach elegant, simple answers to complex problems by keeping the details to themselves. Lastly, they encourage risk. Risk encourages employees to take chances and readily accept error (p. 179-180). One who exudes all of these characteristics is often seen as a leader in sport that is few and far between. While it is important that any leader become an effective manager, being an effective manager and an effective leader are two different matters. According to Hersey and Blanchard (2001) the definition of management is the process of working with and through individuals and groups to accomplish organizational goals (p. 9). In addition, they defined leadership as the process of influencing the activities of an individual or a group in effort toward goal achievement in a given situation (p. 78). Some theorists suggest that both management and leadership are necessary to those who seek professional management in high school athletics and other sport careers. Parks and Quarterman (2003) stated that many athletic directors find themselves involved with management as a process approach. This approach sees managers using interactive activities such as planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting in order to accomplish the goals and objectives of the organ ization or institution. Conversely, the remaining athletic directors consider themselves as a leader in some capacity. As previously noted, two possible leadership styles of high school athletic directors nationwide are transformational and transactional. According to Bass (1985), transactional leaders are engulfed in the way of thinking that compliance is the key. The coach will get rewarded if he/she follows directions and orders. Additionally, Bass (1985) identified two factors as composing transactional leadership. Leaders can transact with followers by rewarding effort contractually, telling them what to do to gain rewards, punishing undesired action, and giving extra feedback and promotions for good work. Such transactions are referred to as contingent reward (CR) leadership. Field and Herold (1997) described transactional leadership as a reward-driven behavior, where the follower behaves in such a manner as to elicit rewards or support from the leader. If a high school athlet ic director is primarily transactional in style, coaches who work for that high school athletic director will only pursue the notion of success if they know ahead of time that there is a reward for achieving that success. In some instances, a primarily transactional leadership style may actually derive from the athletic directors own quest for external, tangible rewards. So, the question arises with many transactional leaders as to why they are involved with coaching or administration if all they are looking for is an end reward? Some administrators in athletics have not had relevant sports management training and likely have developed expertise in other areas, such as business, physical education, or simply general education. A high school athletic director with a traditional business background might be brought in by the administration simply to raise funds for the athletic program, manage the program, and direct the program much like one would manage a corporate operation. Likewi se, a high school athletic director who is brought in with a physical education background is traditionally done so because of his or her success with coaching the student-athlete and having the ability to get through to the student-athlete as needed to provide a successful interscholastic program. The umbrella that encompasses this can be very lucrative for the school if done correctly. In other words, an athletic director who has a physical education background starts out building r