Wednesday, December 25, 2019

The Revolution Of France During The French Revolution

Bonjour. My name is Emilie Barineau, and I am from Paris. Today I will try to summarize what it was like to live in France during the French Revolution. The year was 1786, and I was 9 years old. At the time, I hadn’t known what was going on, only that we were getting less to eat day by day, and at one point, unable to afford money for my toys. When I grew up, I learned that our country had been nearing bankruptcy, because allying with the Americans during their revolution had been costly, and also because of drought, disease, and inflation. In the fall of 1786, the king’s controller general came up with a tax that nobility would no longer be exempt from, to help bring some money back. To prevent a revolt from the rich people, Louis XVI (the sixteenth), our king- in French, â€Å"roi†- invited France’s nobility, clergy, and middle class- also known as the First Estate, Second Estate, and Third Estate- to a meeting for May 5th, 1789, at Versailles. My famil y was middle class, and, at first, my parents were overjoyed for a chance to speak their minds, as there hadn’t been a meeting including all the estates since 1614. However, things took a turn for the worse†¦ Until the meeting, each estate delegate would prepare a list of complaints to present to the king. Since 1614, when the last meeting took place, the Third Estate, or middle class, took up 98% of the population, but could still be outvoted by the aristocrats, or, as we used to call them, nouveaux riches. Leading up to theShow MoreRelatedSocial Structure Of France During The French Revolution Essay1255 Words   |  6 PagesThe French Revolution was a time of period where social and political was a disruption in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799. This time of period affected Social Structure of France prior to the French Revolution. The factors that caused this revolution was due to having a bad government system, weak superiority, and inequality of the classe s of people in France during the war. In this research, I will define and explain how Social Structure contributed to the French Revolution ResentmentRead MoreHow Revolutionaries Consolidated their Political Power in France During The French Revolution1096 Words   |  5 PagesEvaluate the view that revolutionaries consolidated power: Introduction Following the French Revolution, the National Convention and Robespierre as the head of the Committee of Public Safety, employed drastic measures to achieve their goals, however managed to successfully consolidate power as demonstrated by the overall success of the revolution. Whilst the revolution itself was a momentous undertaking, nothing was quite as dramatic as the execution of King Louis XVI that was orchestrated by theRead MoreFrench Revolution Research Essay Rough Draft1096 Words   |  5 PagesSlawson Honors World History 11 May 2016 French Revolution Research Essay Rough Draft France during the 1780s was under the control of King Louis XVI which led to the economy, political state and social state to struggle. The people were being taxed heavily, they were not allowed a say in their government, and were born into the jobs they had. The French wanted a change in the government which ultimately started the French Revolution. A revolution is the overthrowing of a government or rulerRead MoreThe French Revolution : A Period Of Social And Political Turmoil1064 Words   |  5 PagesScharfeld Period 11 28 August 2015 The French Revolution The French Revolution was a period of social and political turmoil in the late 1700s that caused thousands of deaths in France. Important political leaders, such as Philippe Égalità ©, Marie Antoinette, Madame Roland, and even King Louis XVI, and his son, Louis XVII, were killed during the Reign of Terror from 1793-1794 . The revolution looked like it was a failure after Napoleon took power in 1815, but later in French history a second republic was establishedRead MoreThe French Revolution Essay example891 Words   |  4 PagesThe French Revolution The French Revolution evokes many different emotions and controversial issues in that some believe it was worth the cost and some dont. There is no doubt that the French Revolution did have major significance in history. Not only did the French gain their independence, but an industrial revolution also took place. One of the main issues of the Revolution was its human costs. Two writers, the first, Peter Kropotkin who was a Russian prince, and the other Simon SchamaRead MoreThe Rise Of The Enlightenment1577 Words   |  7 PagesIn the midst of darkness, the people of France saw a beacon of hope when the Enlightenment gave them a glimpse of how great their life could be. The Enlightenment was a collection of ideas from various philosophers in Europe to question old views of society and use reason to create a better society. The enlightenment ideas focused on the people and their needs, prompting for governments to protect people’s basic rights to liberty, life, and equalit y. France, at the time, was suffering under the weakRead MoreCauses of the French Revolution During the period of 1789-1799 people lived much differently than700 Words   |  3 PagesCauses of the French Revolution During the period of 1789-1799 people lived much differently than individuals do today and there were many reasons for this. During the French Revolution there was a large amount of taxation for certain class groups, â€Å"While average tax rates were higher in Britain, the burden on the common people was greater in France† (GNU, 2008, pg. 2). Due to these large taxations on the peasants and lower class and not on the clergy and nobles it caused excessive conflict betweenRead MoreThe French Revolution:. The French Revolution Helped Mold1440 Words   |  6 PagesThe French Revolution: The French revolution helped mold a lot of nations into what they are today. The French revolution began in 1789 and ended in 1799. Some important factors in the revolution are: its people, battles, and how it affected the nations that we know today. The French Revolution, also known as the revolution of 1789, was a movement that helped shape France into what it is today. The Revolution may have began in 1787 but it was not until 1789 the revolution to become worse. TheRead MoreThe Real Cause of the French Revolution Essay1710 Words   |  7 PagesThe Real Cause of the French Revolution For hundreds of years historians have tried to find out the real cause of the French Revolution, and they have come up with hundreds of varieties different reasons as well. Spread over the ten-year period from 1789-1799, the French Revolution was initiated by disagreements over the peoples ideas of reform. Seeking equality, libertyRead MoreComplications Of The French Revolution1364 Words   |  6 PagesThe French Revolution (1789-1799) had significant, far reaching implications. In Britain it permeated every level of society. Not only did politicians change their allegiances, but moderate reformers were radicalised, and British society was completely divided into supporters and detractors of the Revolution. It also resulted in a drastic politicisation of Ireland, changing the nature of politics completely. The British government was threatened by the French Revolution because they saw what was

Tuesday, December 17, 2019

Social Influences on Smoking Essay - 3498 Words

Social Influences on Smoking The tobacco industry is important to the economy. In 1991, worldwide tobacco sales exceeded $59.8 billion and in 1992 the industry was rated as one of the top one hundred advertisers (Pechmann and Ratneshwar, 1994). However, there are high prices to pay - socially, economically, and personally - as a result of this industry. Annual mortality figures indicate that cigarette smoking is the number one cause of preventable death in the United States. An estimated 390,000 people die each year of smoke related illnesses, which is greater than the combined mortality for cocaine, crack, AIDS, homicide, suicide, and alcohol abuse (Botvin, G., Baker, Botvin, E., Dusenbury, Cardwell, and Diaz, 1993). This†¦show more content†¦Belief refers to the notion that persons who agree to social norms feel it appropriate to abide by them. Thus, they are less likely to engage in deviant behavior. They all have been found to have either a negative or positive influential effect (DeFronzo and Pawlak, 1993). To illustrate, several studies have identified social controls whose absence has caused adolescents to experiment and initiate in tobacco use. Starting at home, the influence of parental attitude and behavior toward adolescent smoking has a major impact on adolescent smoking. Newman and Ward (1989) sampled 735 students from 12 schools in and around one moderately sized Midwestern city, 18.5% of the sample were smokers. In this study, Newman Ward asked the students questions via a questionnaire in order to rate the parental attitudes. One question asked was, With regards to my smoking cigarettes, my parents/guardian would: threaten to punish me if I smoked; havent told me how they feel if I smoke? ; have told me they dont care if I smoke (Newman and Ward, 1989, p. 150). Two-thirds of the students reported that both parents would be upset if they smoked. An interesting note was that about two-thirds of the nonsmoking adolescents reported parental disapproval versus one-half of the smoking adolescents. The analysis of the data revealed that when neither parent smoked andShow MoreRelatedPsychological And Social Influences On Smoking Behaviour1202 Words   |  5 PagesWellbeing Year 1, Semester 2. Coursework 1: Psychological and social influences on smoking behaviour Yinka Oladokun B00669560 B.Sc. Hons Psychology Introduction Smoking is a particularly common and intractable addictive disorder and is the leading preventable cause of many preventable chronic illnesses and death, responsible for approximately six million annual mortalities Yet, despite the well documented consequences of smoking, despite the unequivocal benefits of quitting and despite factsRead MoreThe Theory Of Reasoned Action1529 Words   |  7 Pagesexplanations of informational and motivational influences on behavior. In addition, these theories can be very useful in investigating unethical behavior. However, there are some limitations in predicting behavior, when it comes to these two theories. The first of which is that intention determinants are not limited to attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control. Meaning it is possible that there are other factors that may influence behavior. The second limitation for these theoriesRead MoreThe Negative Impacts Of Smoking1547 Words   |  7 Pagesthousands adults every day is smoking cigarette. The issue of smoking has become one of the most significant and controversial debates in Australia, due its health problem and the effect of the environment atmosphere. Researches and medics worldwide were studying the main causes that makes people smoke and why? (Backes, 2016). According to Dr Jewell‘s article, reveals that there are lots of factors that influencing young children to smoke. Factors such as social influence or peer pressure, curiosityRead MoreBehavioural Perspective Model1448 Words   |  6 Pagesdraws upon the BPM to examine the extent to which all of the elements of the BPM could be combined to produce a more effective social marketing initiative to influence students not to smoke in the university cafeteria. What is Behaviour Perspective Model? It is an extension of the Three-Term contingency. The Three-term contingency was devised by Skinner to influence the behaviour of organisms. He defined two types of intervention to shape behaviour. One is by associating the consequences toRead MoreEssay on The Impact of Media on Teenagers985 Words   |  4 Pagesgreat influence on the actions we partake in on a daily basis. Though adults dont usualy fall into the pressure of the media, young children and teenagers ae highly sussestable to what the media is telling them to do and whats cool. A major action glorified by the media is smoking and it pressures minors to take up the horrible habit as an attempt to be happy or some how be like their favorite celebrity. Media and holly wood especially have both contributed to an era of people smoking and areRead MoreSocial And Ecological Model Of Public Health1480 Words   |  6 PagesThe social/ecological model of public health is a multilevel system that emphasizes on the linkages among several factors or determinants affecting health f rom an individual level to a larger social network (Coreil, 2010). This model is organized according to five hierarchical levels of influence: intrapersonal, interpersonal, organizational, community, and society (Coreil, 2010). Intrapersonal level can include biological and psychological factors such as genetics, cognition, and personality; interpersonalRead MoreThe Effects Of Smoking On The Uk1065 Words   |  5 Pagesmore of us become aware of the dangers of smoking, the percentage of smokers in the UK has fallen from around 50 per cent of the population in the 1950s to 25 per cent in 2003. Even with this fall in the number of smokers, it s estimated that cigarettes were responsible for more than 1.2 million deaths in 2000 in the European region of the World Health Organisation. In the UK, smoking is responsible for around one in five deaths. The illnesses caused by smoking extend beyond the well-reported linksRead MoreEssay on Social Influences in Health Decision Making1398 Words   |  6 PagesHealth behaviour theorists have long attested to the importance of social influences in health decision making. For example, the prominent Social Cognitive Theory builds in a construct of outcome expectancies, of which social outcome expectancies, or the value of the anticipated reaction of those in one’s environment, play a role. In essence, an individual is going to consider anticipated approving or disapproving responses, by his/her peers, to a particular health decision, and the perceived reactionRead MoreEffectiveness Of Models Of Health1647 Words   |  7 Pagesrelation to Smoking-related Conditions Models of health include biomedical model and social models.  ¬Ã‚ ¬Ã‚ ¬Firstly, this essay explains why as patterns of illness change over the last 150 years, social models are more relevant than biomedical model in helping us understand causes of ill health. Secondly, it discusses how social models like Biopsychosocial and Dhalgren and Whitehead’s model are effective, to a certain extent, in explaining current trends in significant health issues like smoking-related conditionsRead MoreFour Stages in Health Communication840 Words   |  4 Pagesused to influence healthcare policy. According to Hicks Nichols (2012), social marketing has demonstrated its ability to influence health policy, as exemplified by a program such as the National Cancer Institutes American Stop Smoking Intervention Study (ASSIST). Social marketing also can change policy markers frame of reference for social issues, such as the social acceptability of smoking, contributing to legislation and policy that change the environment. Social marketing can influence smokers

Monday, December 9, 2019

Introduction to Hrms at Tata Consultancy Services free essay sample

The Human Resource Management Systems (HRMS) enables you to achieve a well managed human resource system, turning HR management into a strategic advantage. What is Human Resource Management? Today, the most successful enterprises continuously review and improve their business functions, searching for new ways to streamline processes to make them more effective and to use them to gain competitive advantage. Human Resource Management is responsible for addressing the workforce aspect of this continuous improvement. How has the role of Human Resource Management changed? Human resource management was originally an administrative and welfare role within an enterprise. This often included recruitment and record–keeping functions. This role was primarily reactive in nature. Human Resources responded to the needs of both managers and employees, but did not anticipate them. In the last few decades, human resource management has evolved and assumed a more proactive role, from automated processing, to the provision of a new level of strategic value. We will write a custom essay sample on Introduction to Hrms at Tata Consultancy Services or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Why is Human Resource Management important? The people within your enterprise produce the goods and provide the services that fuel your enterprise. At the same time, the human cost is often the biggest cost a company incurs. Well managed human resources directly improve your enterprise and contribute to a competitive advantage. If your enterprise has strategic, value added human resource management you will hire, motivate and retain the most capable workforce. You will have the ability to engage employees and line managers directly in managing their skills and careers to your enterprise’s advantage. Furthermore, you will have accurate, up–to–date workforce information for managers and executives. What applications comprise the HRMS family suite? HRMS consists of the following applications. These are all separate products powerfully integrated into one application family. Human Resources Payroll Advanced Benefits Self–Service Human Resources (SSHR) When the term HRMS is used, it refers to this integrated set of applications. Applications Related to the HRMS family suite There are other applications related to the HRMS family suite: Training Administration Application Data Exchange Statutory Sick Pay and Statutory Maternity Pay Time Management Business Intelligence System Individual user guides provide information on these other products. What is TCS Human Resources? TCS Human Resources (HR) is a proactive management solution that helps control costs while developing and supporting an effective workforce. Among the many features of HR is the ability to Manage the entire recruitment cycle Design organizational models that match current and future business strategies and objectives Perform position management by defining and recording required skills, competencies, experience and qualifications for positions, jobs and organizations Perform career management functions relating to the definition of competencies, assessments, suitability matching, graphical ranking and succession planning Administer and maintain benefits plans, coverage levels and contribution allocations Manage salary proposals and approve these by component Use spreadsheets to export compensation and benefit details for comparison with external survey figures Human Resources provides the shortest route to fast, smart human resource management. What is TCS HRMS Payroll? THE HRMS Payroll is a high–performance, rule based payroll management system designed to keep pace with changing enterprises and workforce needs. HRMS Payroll managers require a solution to address unique requirements and offer complex calculations without losing the benefits of a standard supported package. Payroll offers that capability via a unique, data driven approach that enables the definition and management of diverse payroll requirements. Among its many capabilities, HRMS Payroll delivers the power to: Process many payrolls quickly and easily in a single day Define comprehensive personal payment methods Quickly create complex calculation rules such as union overtime without programming Efficiently check, double check and reconcile payrolls Make retroactive adjustments to past earnings or deductions Examine employee payment histories at any time Track and monitor employee costs via online access to payroll data Disburse in multiple currencies Transfer payroll information to the general ledger and to other accounting systems, including project costing systems Report on payroll results to the tax office and company executives Maintain full security and integrity of payroll information, including historical information Enable access to information when required for inquiries and responses to pay queries HRMS Payroll enables fast, flexible and accurate payroll processing from time capture to ledger costing. What is meant by separate vs. integrated TCS HRMS systems? Traditionally, human resources and payroll departments have often held and managed human resource information in separate, duplicate systems. Over time there has been a greater demand for more unified information management erived from both human resource and payroll sources. One solution to this has been to develop interface products, that enable technical specialists to transfer data between the two systems. HRMS, however, provides an integrated system that both functions can genuinely share with full security and control of access by responsibility. This system is flexible enough to be implemented for use in a human resources only or a payrol l only environment. In each case you have access to the full range of functionality associated with human resources or payroll. What is TCS HRMS Advanced Benefits? In addition to the powerful compensation and benefit functionality included in Human Resources, also offers Advanced Benefits. Advanced Benefits enables the setup and administration of a complete benefits offering for enterprises managing their own benefits administration. Advanced Benefits delivers the following key functions: Pre and post–enrollment communications Web and interactive voice response (IVR) enrollment for cafeteria and exceptions Default and mass enrollments Enrollment process monitoring Life event management (for example, new hires, transfers, relocations or age changes) Web–based what–if eligibility analysis Flexibility spending account claims processing and reporting Advanced Benefits provides a total compensation framework, setting the stage for exciting and new compensation solutions. What is Self–Service Human Resources (SSHR) SSHR provides self–service human resource management for managers and employees. Using an intranet and a web browser employees and their managers now have easy to use and intuitive access to personal data and career management functionality. Workflow is used extensively in SSHR. SSHR uses Workflow to manage the flow of information between employees and management. The workflow engine is used for business process transactions and can route decision making through approval chains. For example, an employee may apply for a job using the Apply for a Job function and through a management approvals process be informed and accepted into a job. The workflow engine is also used to modify and configure much of SSHR. Using SSHR you can: Manage careers . This includes appraising employee’s competencies, matching a person to a job or position by competence and planning succession. Perform web based recruitment using ’Candidate Offers’ Candidate offers enables you to perform web based recruitment. Managers can seek approval for an appointment then advise job applicants, by letter, that they have been successful. This function is offered with its own responsibilities. Is HRMS a Multilingual, Global Application? Yes. HRMS offers the best of both worlds in the same installation . It provides non–legislative information common across all countries, plus localized information specific to each country. Also enables you to run HRMS in more than one language on a single database. This enables you to enter and report on information using more than one language. For example, your base, or source language, could be French, but you could also install German and English. You would then be able to enter and produce reports in French. Overview All your HRMS applications have a single source of information because they share the same tables within the database. This eliminates data redundancy, reduces the possibility of conflicting data in different databases and creates a consistent, complete and reliable picture of every employee. To help you understand how HRMS uses the database, you need to be familiar with the following key concepts: Human Resource Model: The human resource model reflects the enterprise’s structures and policies, that is at TCS . This information model lets you record the personal, work, and pay information for all the people you want to hold and process. Shared Information in HRMS: Human Resources and Payroll are available for purchase together as the components of a closely integrated human resources management system. This system combines Human Resources and Payroll windows under a single menu structure, sharing windows and underlying tables wherever possible to eliminate redundant data entry, maintenance and storage. ? How To Use Your Documentation and Online Help: There are many different activities which make up a successful strategic, value–added human resource management system. All these activities can be grouped into an interrelated cycle of events. To help you set up and manage your system, each event in the cycle is explained in the volumes of your HRMS User’s Gu ide and the online help. Multilingual HRMS: HRMS enables you to manage information in a wide variety of languages. To enable you to do this HRMS provides you with: – Multiple address styles National identifiers (such as social security numbers) validated against the format required in each country – Legislation specific date formatting – Translatable information –Multilingual reports Managing Change Over Time: A key requirement for any enterprise is the ability to manage change confidently and effectively. Typical enterprise changes include corporate restructuring, departmental reorganization, mergers and de–mergers of companies, centralization or decentralization of control and decision making, employee development and turnover. In TCS HRMS, you can change each of the major parts of your enterprise model without having to redefine the other parts. Modelling the Human Resources Information at TCS Human Resource Model The human resource model is both flexible and adaptable. It is flexible, so that you can control different groups within the same company. It is adaptable, so that you can easily change the basic model as your enterprise changes. People In HRMS, you can hold information about current and former employees, applicants, external contacts such as contractors, and employee contacts such as relatives and dependents. In addition to standard information such as addresses, nationality, interview records, qualifications, and absence information, you can define any other special information you need to hold for people. For example, you can define what information to hold on medical history, previous employment, or outside interests. You can also record employment information, such as hours of work and work choices. HRMS holds one integrated set of employee–related information. Payroll users access the parts of this information they require, while enterprise business rules determine who is responsible for entering and maintaining it. Work Structures Work structures represent the different ways in which employees can work within your enterprise. They provide the framework for defining the work assignments of your employees. They enable you to manage the information about your enterprise that is independent of your employees. You can also think of work structures as representing the organizational units of your enterprise. The Business Group is the largest unit and represents your enterprise as a whole. The work structures include your internal organizations (such as departments or divisions), payrolls, jobs or positions, grading structures, and any special employee groupings that you use in your enterprise. There is one integrated set of work structures for human resource and payroll users. Compensation and Benefits In HRMS you can define your own types of compensation and benefits, and the business rules you want to apply to them. As you change policies, move people within your enterprise, and adjust their individual remuneration packages, the system maintains their compensation and benefit history. For example, suppose you want to define a special type of payment and make this available only to employees who work at a particular location. In HRMS you use a compensation element to represent the payment. You define the business rule as a link between the element and the specific location. Then when you assign employees to the location, they automatically become eligible for the payment. Assignments In HRMS, the assignment describes employees’ places within the enterprise: the organization for which they work, their role, grade, location, and so on. As you change the assignment information for an employee, you automatically build up their work history. Your compensation eligibility rules link compensation and benefits to work structures, such as jobs or grades. The assignment places employees within the work structures of the enterprise. In this way, an employee’s assignment determines their eligibility for compensation and benefits. You can use assignments to identify major employee groups within the enterprise for management, for reporting and costing, and for compensation and benefit planning and administration.

Sunday, December 1, 2019

Psychosocial Assessment

Brandon, a fifteen-year old male addressed a hotline trying to solve his family problem, uncertain and even conflict relationship with his father. This can be a sign that his individual functioning is not distorted by some abnormal factors. The boy reveals his understanding that family is one of the essential values and wants to have a good family.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on Psychosocial specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More He tries to verbalize possible reasons for his stress: difficult relationship with mother, parents’ divorce, negative influence of the father’s girlfriend. Brandon provides some possible reasons for his stress so his perception is logic. His responses are clear and informative, so he is unlikely to feel strong negative emotions during the interview. He is reasonable and quite positive: he understands the importance of positive family relations, further education, and has so me future plans. Nothing indicates at his possible addictions, however, it is still unclear whether he takes some medicine, drugs. It is also necessary to point that there is no information about his health state which can be very important while defining the reasons for his stress and suggesting possible ways to diminish the stress and solve the problem. Apart from his normal individual functioning it is possible to point out that his relational functioning can be also characterized as a norm. Brandon wants to have good relationship with his father. Brandon cares about his sister and does not want her to get hurt. He has friends. He also mentions his uncle and grandmother who can help him, so he has a good relationship with these people as well. Brandon also points out that he attends his school counselor weekly and discusses some problems there. However, on the other hand, he has conflicts with his father and does not show cooperation with him. Brandon cannot also build a good rel ationship with his father’s girlfriend. Of course, he is not necessarily responsible for those conflicts. Nevertheless, the existence of these interpersonal conflicts with his father and his father girlfriend reveal a certain relational malfunctioning. On the basis of the existing information it is quite hard to make adequate conclusions.Advertising Looking for assessment on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More However, it is possible to conclude that the reason for Brandon’s stress is his biased attitude towards his father and his father’s girlfriend, not only in his being abused by his father. To assist Brandon, it can be helpful to obtain more information about him and the situation in their family. Of course, it is necessary to have more data about Brandon’s health state and possible problems (drugs, alcohol, sexual problems). Of course, one of the most suitable solutions of the problem c an be found in the very good and sincere talk between Brandon and his father. Brandon should prepare his arguments. He should reveal all his concerns and also explain his behavior (poor academic performance, etc.). By all means, this should be the first and very thoughtful step which should be made by Brandon himself. The client can be quite right avoiding addressing to some authorities since this may produce some macro risks: it can only increase the conflict and lead to far more serious problems, one of which is a complete family breakup. Another helpful advice which can be given to Brandon is to reveal some details of his family situation to his school counselor who can invite his father for several conversations. So, Brandon and his father can get some professional help without addressing authorities or revealing overt initiative from Brandon’s part. This assessment on Psychosocial was written and submitted by user Sara L. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Senior Paper Essays - Emerging Technologies, Free Essays

Senior Paper Essays - Emerging Technologies, Free Essays Moises Olivas Mrs.Baltajian Senior English 1 9 March 2016 Senior Paper In todays society the misuse of technology is very important. It changes the way people live and how some people view the world today. Brave New World is a novel based on the misuse of technology, in the novel they made humans in a lab and thats how the world worked. Aldous Huxley the author of the novel wrote this book in 1931. Huxley wrote this book to show the change in society and show the manipulation that was going on during that time period. This issue personally is huge mainly because it affects peoples lives every day. With technology growing more and more each day of course it is going to be hard to try keeping an eye on all of todays new technology but this problem could be solved by testing the new products to make sure they are safe. Aldous Huxleys message in Brave New World is that the misuse of technology is wrong and that it was still misused during his time period. During this time they tried to use reproductive technology, sleep learning, and psychological manipulation. Huxley was correct to believe the misuse of technology, which was a significant issue during the 1930s and today, and can be solved by limiting the technology that can be used. In the novel Brave New World one of the main issues that is addressed is the misuse of technology. For example Reducing the number of revolutions per minute Mr. Foster explained. The surrogate goes slower; therefore passes through the lung at a lower intervals which gives the embryo less oxygen. Nothing like oxygen shortage for keeping an embryo below par (Mr. Foster 1.14). This shows that Mr. Foster gives the embryo less oxygen to make them not be able to breathe as much as the others which will harm the embryos and make them not as smart as the others. Furthermore, another line explains we also predestine and condition. We decant our babies as socialized human beings, as alphas or epsilons as future sewage workers or future directors of hatcheries (The Director 1.13). They trick them into thinking that they have a choice with what they want to do with their lives. When really they dont and their life is already planned out for them and the Director just uses them. The director programs the embryos to where they like certain things by the time they are born. For instance in this quote we condition the masses to hate the country Concluded the Director. But simultaneously we condition them to love all country sports. At the same time, we see to it that all country sports shall entail the use of elaborate apparatus. So that they consume manufactured articles as well as transport. Hence those electric shocks (The Director 2.23). They torture the people by making them like outside sports but not liking the country and they practically control them that way. Also, one excerpt asserts observe said the Director triumphantly, observe books and loud noises, flowers and electric shocks. Already in the infant mind these couples were compromisingly linked; and after two hundred repetitions of the same or a similar lesson would be weeded indissolubly. What man has joined, nature is powerless to put asunder (The Director 2.21). The Director in this quote shows his use of technology by them inserting things into the minds of babies when they are born, this is how he shows his power. In addition, one excerpt declares one egg, one embryo, one adult normality. But boanovskified egg will bud, will proliferate, and will divide. From eighty to ninety six buds, and every bud will grow into a perfectly formed embryo, and every embryo into a full sized adult. Making ninety six human beings grow where only one grew before. Process (The Director 1.6). With this process instead of one baby being born from a fertilized egg ninety six will be born. Which would speed of the process of creating Alphas, Betas, Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons for The Director. Above all, in this last quote they show how they misuse technology and how they only use it for their good. The lower the caste, said Mr. Foster, the shorter the oxygen. The

Saturday, November 23, 2019

10 Ways to Blog Your Book to Increase Sales Without Being Pushy or Annoying (Part 2)

10 Ways to Blog Your Book to Increase Sales Without Being Pushy or Annoying (Part 2) Last week I shared the first half of a list devoted to blog post topics that will let your audience know about your work in authentic and engaging ways. I will finish sharing those post ideas with you today in hopes that you’ll be able to spread the good word about your book and increase your sales without making your family and friends and social media followers want to run the other way. (Click here for Part 1) Let’s jump back in! Book Launch Party One of my favorite parts about promoting my books is planning and executing the book launch party. Making my fictional piece of art an experience for others to encounter feels like literally bringing my story to life. After the party, I often write a post sharing the details and a plethora of pictures. Readers who weren’t able to attend due to conflicting schedules or distance can catch up on all the action and of course buy a book through a clearly provided link. Behind the Scenes Facts   Once your readers have had a chance to experience your story world and come to know your characters, give them some bonus material. Creating a list of behind the scenes facts will make your readers feel like they are getting the inside scoop, and therefore special. When others bring up your book in conversation (in the grocery store, at church, in the breakroom) they will be able to say, â€Å"Did you know†¦?† Word of mouth continues to be the greatest form of advertisement, and this type of blog post will keep the conversation going about your book. Interviews When my friend Silvia’s third installment in her YA Mythology trilogy came out, she spread the word through interviews. You can see three great examples of this type of blog post in action here, here and here. Silvia’s posts appear on a writing coach’s blog, a national children’s writing organization website and a fellow author friend’s blog. Search for guest blog post or interview opportunities that will give you and your book lots of (hopefully new!) eyes. Extras If you have created extra materials to go with your books, like discussion guides for book clubs or educational materials for children’s books, let the world know about them through a blog post. Rochelle Groskreutz, author of Easter Elf, and her publisher KWiL, created this adorable activity kit to go with her debut picture book. Not only is this free product value added to her story, but it is also a valuable addition to her website and will likely drive traffic in her direction. Share Some Wisdom Often you learn a thing or two in the process of writing a book. Write a blog post sharing that hard-earned knowledge with others and win yourself some fans and admirers in the process. These types of posts will also assert you as an expert in the field and therefore a credible and reliable source in the field. My friend Blaine did this recently when he learned a few successful tricks in the persnickety process of scanning, resizing and publishing original art when creating a picture book. He explains his process in this blog post about his book, The Leprechaun Who Lost His Luck. And last, but not least, you can write a post like this one, full of links to previously written content, in an effort to both illustrate a point and further spread the word about your work. Best of luck as you share your stories – both the published ones and the ones behind the scenes – with your audience. (Click here for Part 1)

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Marketing Management Master Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Marketing Management Master - Case Study Example Defre Robes is also intending to extend it product line and probably add new lines as well. Additionally, the firm plans to venture in online opportunities by creating ecommerce tool. The market has been very receptive of the products offered. High quality products, designer and party robes for pets coming in trendy colours, with logos and slogans that portray outdoor enthusiasm (Hiebing & Cooper 2003). Defre Robes was established this year by Defredor Ashira, who is a young and ambitious entrepreneur. Ashira has a degree in fashion and Design from as reputable university; he has also worked in a designer firm for two years where at a time which he did his post graduate diploma in marketing. This company is a reflection of Ashira's Love for outdoor activities and especially those that involves pets and show-offs (Westwood 2006). The company's original cotton robes for pets to play in are superb and convenient in games, hiking, and other games (Kotler 2003) Defre robes are currently stored in several retail stores across the United Kingdom; they include areas like Camden, Warwick, Hampstead, and London. The company also intends to increase to other place like Whitley bay and Hungerford before the end of this year. The products have unique slogans, well coordinated colours and of greater quality. The firm is also dedicated to conserving the environment through the support of environmental programs. This marketing plan will outline Defre's plan to introduce newer products, increase distribution and venture into new markets and give back to the society as well (Hiebing & Cooper 2003). Business Overview Defer robes target individual who appreciate their pets and also like outdoor activities. Sportswear retailers will also form the second majority clients. This is in view of the fact that people are increasingly devoting some time to take care of their pets and going with them out for outdoor activities like hiking, normal walks, touring recreation sites their pets. It's been found that well dressed pets are attractive to carry around or even take them for a walk (Okwiya 2009). The company intends to blend these attires by opening a sports centre for the pets' outdoor activities and games. The pricing of the prices is relatively fair with a simple robe for a pet (smaller size) going for $40 dollars and the most expensive one is barely $ 80. The firm is still very young and most of the dales are done directly while the rest are stored in retailer stores and few distributors. The firm also realizes that technology is increasing and that online services will be more convenient. And as such, the firm also intends to open online services in future and eventually start recreation activates for pets. The firm has another compound near Warwick where it can set up a place the people can go to relax and have good time with their pets (Gibbon 2002) There are few competitors who manufacture pets cloths in London an major teems in UK but this will be overcome by Defre's strategy which includes direct selling to the clients and organizing events like fashion shows, exhibitions and plays for pets (Okwiya 2009). Mission and Goals The corporate mission for Defre Robes is to be the leading producer and supplier of personalized robes for pets to their customers and especially

Tuesday, November 19, 2019

Health South Corporation Case Study Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Health South Corporation - Case Study Example d risks associated with buying various businesses from HealthSouth and deciding whether it would be prudent of White Rock Capital to make such an investment. Of particular interest is the ambulatory surgery division, diagnostic centers and rehabilitation facilities earmarked for disposal. He is responsible for determining the nature and extent of the fraud case and the repurcusions of fraud. The cases under investigation involve fraud allegations against Healthsouth. In particular, Healthsouth is alleged to have billed group therapy as concurrent therapy. The concurrent therapy system was later (2002) abolished by the CMS upon the issue of a clarification requiring that all concurrent therapy services be reimbursed at group therapy rates. This policy change by the CMS was important to Healthsouth’s business interests as the concurrent therapy program generated more capital than the group therapy program. For eample, Healthsouth lowered its EBITDA by $172 million in the fiscal year 2002 as a result of changes in medicare reimbursements for its outpatient rehabilitation services. It is important for Nair to thoroughly scrutinise the suspect transactions carried out by Scrushy. One suspicious transaction is Scrushy’s decision to sell $74 million of his stock in may 2002 despite having previously announced satisfaction with analyst’s estimates of 39% grofit growth in early 2002. Another suspect transaction was Scrushy’s sale of shares in July 2002 to repay an outstanding loan he owed the company before the company’s profit warning. Despite the transaction being approved by the company’s Compensation Committee the shares of Health South tumbled 44% on august 27 2002 closing at $6.69 per share (Ferrell, Fraedrich and Ferrell, 2013). Nair should also note that the initiative by Healthsouth to spin-off its ambulatory surgery division and the shedding of other assets was in the aftermath of a SEC request for documents. There was concern among analysts that

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Determination Of The Relative Composition Of a Mixture Solution Essay Example for Free

Determination Of The Relative Composition Of a Mixture Solution Essay To determine the relative composition of a mixture solution containing sodium ethane-1, 2-dioate and ethane-1, 2-dioic acid. INTRODUCTION Potassium permanganate KMn is a strong oxidizing agent which reacts with reducing agent ethanedioate ion to give and C + 2 Mn+ 16 2+8+10 Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) reacts with acid to give water . the reaction is shown with the following equation + To investigate the relative composition of the mixture solution, it has to be titrated with NaOH first with phenolphthalein as indicator and then with acidify KMn as Mn react with both compound. KMnhas to be acidified first, otherwise brown ppt of Mn is formed instead of 2 H2O + MnO4- + 3 e- à ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½ Mn+ 4 In addition to that, the reaction solution has to be warmed to about 70 as the reaction rate is very slow. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS beaker measuring cylinder. Safety spectacles beaker conical flask pipette ,25 burette ,50, and stand wash bottle white file electrical heater sulphuric acid Potassium permanganate KMn solution Mixture solution PROCEDURE 1. 25.00of the mixture solution was transferred into a 250conical flask using a pipette rinsed by distilled water and the mixture solution 2. The burette rinsed by distilled water and NaOH is filled with NaOH 3. Titrate the mixture solution with 0.1M NaOH solotuion using phenolphthalein as indicactor 4. Until the solution turns pink, result is recorded in table 1 5. About 25.00of 1M sulphuric acid (using measuring cylinder) is added to the conical flask . 6. The mixture is then heated by electrical heater to at least 70. 7. The heated mixture is then titrated with 0.02M Potassium permanganate KMn until a permanent pink colour is observed 8. Record the result in Table2 RESULT Table 1 Titration result of mixture solution against NaOH Trial 1 2 3 Final burette reading 15.4 27.3 39.0 12.8 Initial burette Reading 3.1 15.4 27.3 1.0 Volume of NaOH Added 12.3 11.9 11.7 11.8 Mean Volume of NaOH added ( 11.7+11.8+11.9) /3 =11.8 Table 2 Titration result of mixture solution against KMn Trial 1 2 3 Final burette reading 35.0 26.4 45.5 40.6 Initial burette Reading 16.3 7.1 26.4 21.4 Volume of NaOH Added 18.7 19.3 19.1 19.2 Mean Volume of NaOH added ( 19.3+19.1+19.2) /3 =19.2 CALCUALTION Equation involved in the reaction between NaOH and mixture solution: + +Na(aq) Mole ratio of NaOH:=2:1 = =11.8/10000.1/2 =5.9xmol Molarity of = 5.9X/(25/1000) =2.36 x M + 2 Mn+ 16 2+8+10 Mole ratio of : Mn=5:2 = =519.2/10000.02/2 =9.610^-4 mol Mole of sodium ethane-1,2-dioate = 9.6x-5.91 l = 3.7 x mol Molarity of sodium ethane-1,2-dioate in mixture = 3.7 x/(25/1000) =1.48xM DISCUSSIONS CHOICE OF INDICATORS Phenolphthalein is used as indicator in the reaction between Sodium hydroxide and ethane-1, 2-dioic acid because the reaction involves a weak acid titrated against a strong alkali. REASON FOR HEATING THE MIXTURE SOLUTION The rate reaction between and Mn is very slow as there is repulsion between anion. REASON FOR HEATING MIXTURE SOLUTION IN THE CONICAL FLASK INSTEAD OF MN IN THE BURETTE Aqueous solution of Potassium permanganate KMn is unstable and can easily be decomposed. The decomposition is accelerated by heat. If it is put in the conical flask and heated, it will easily oxidize water to oxygen and the amount of KMn is therefore decreased. 4Mn 4Mn +3 In addition, if hot Potassium permanganate solution is added to the burette, it may cause expansion of burette, causing inaccurate measurement. END POINT The end-point is not very permanent because if the Mn ion is in large excess, the following reaction occur: 2 Mn+3+ 2 +4 DECOPOSITION OF POTASSIUM PERMANGANATE Potassium permanganate is easily decomposed and the decomposition is speed up by light, heat, acids, base, reducing agent in air such as hydrogen sulphide gas, , , and even by the end-product Therefore, it should be stored in brown bottle and should be standardized before use. ABSORPTION OF WATER BY SODIUM HYDROXIDE sodium hydroxide absorb water from air. The volume of solution increase, and hence cause a decrease in concentration, causing inaccurate calculation CONCLUSION The concentration of sodium ethane-1,2-dioate is 1.48xM while ethane-1, 2-dioic acids is 2.36 x M

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Human Trafficking vs. Prostitution: Is There a Difference? Essay

In today’s modern society, prostitution is defined as the act or practice of engaging in promiscuous sexual relations, especially for money. Trafficking can be defined in terms of dealing or trading in something illegal (Merriam-Webster). In many cultures, prostitution is indeed illegal. So, is there a difference? Are there variances that set prostitution and human trafficking apart, or are they just different forms of the same industry? In order to answer this question, it is important to first understand the histories of both prostitution and human trafficking. Often dubbed â€Å"the world’s oldest profession†, prostitution can be found in the records of most major civilizations throughout human history. The first known reference to prostitution comes from the ancient Sumerians, dating back to roughly 2400 B.C. They spoke of prostitution as a religious endeavor, describing how it was used in their temple services. Prostitution began showing up in other societies as time went on. In Greece, they were called pornes. In Asia, they were referred to as orian. In Rome, depending on their registration status, they were either a meretrix or a prostibulae. For a time, this world wide practice of exchanging sexual favors for money was legal in all corners of the globe. In 590 A.D., however, the King of Spain decided to outlaw the practice in his country. He decided that women who engaged in the practice of prostitution were to be whipped and forced into exile. Soon after, many other countries began implementing their own regulations concerning the governing of prostitution. In 1161, England set up regulations requiring that all those who engaged in the practice of prostitution must be single. England also required that all brot...>. "The Campaign to Rescue & Restore Victims of Human Trafficking: Fact Sheet: Human Trafficking." Administration for Children and Families. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. . Jenkins, John Philip. "Prostitution." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. . Masci, David. "Human Trafficking and Slavery: Are the World's Nations Doing Enough to Stamp It Out?" The CQ Researcher 14.12 (2004): 275-94. Web. 01 Apr. 2012. . Merriam-Webster. Merriam-Webster. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. . PBS. PBS. Web. 12 Apr. 2012. .

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

Comparing British Welfare Systems with 2 Other Countries

A 2000 word comparative review of the ways different countries approach welfare, as discussed on the unit. The aim of this essay is to discuss and compare the British Welfare system with Germany and Sweden’s welfare systems. A welfare system is the structure of welfare provisions and services that provide a specific social need, but it is not only provided or organised solely by the government (Blakemore, 2001). It is a view that is rooted in individual exchanges between five organisations (State/Government, Market/Private Sector, Family/Kin networks, Local Communities and Civil Society).It reflects the history and cultures of different countries around the world (Haralambos, 2012). It is these providers that assume principal responsibilities of how welfare systems are organised and how they are worked for the welfare of its people in matters of health care, education, employment, and social security (Haralambos & Holborn, 2012b). The essay will focus on Adult Disability benef its and describe which of the main provider delivers disability benefits for the short-term and long term unemployed.The essay will also describe how they work and what patterns of provision is provided for the disabled. Then comparisons will be made on how the British welfare approaches on disability payments are provided and how they work, and I will examine the differences and similarities to each countries welfare system. The structure of the essay is based on a comparative method systematically designed for equivalences, similarities and shared common features. According to (Landman, 2004) the selection process involves two main types of research designs.Comparing different results across similar countries is known as ‘most similar systems’ and comparing similar outcomes across different countries known as ‘most different systems’. Either way using similarities and differences of different countries is meant to uncover what is common to each country (L andman, 2004, p28). The methodology approach is to select a ‘small –N’ (a few countries) and use the ‘trine’ method of involving three countries (Lewis, 2012). The method identified common features of the British welfare state with that of Germany and Sweden.Classification is a way of grouping common features which are mutual with other countries (Lewis, 2012). All 3 countries have a welfare system for those who have full or permanent disabilities. In order for things to be comparable they have to share certain features like welfare systems and have common features, called equivalences. Most countries have common features such as institutions, policies and services without these common features a comparison cannot be made. The essay will draw on an implicit approach rather than explicit because it is the British welfare system that comparisons are being made.All countries provide certain benefits for those who have full and permanent disabilities but they differ in the types of benefits they provide. Studies reviewed showed that some countries have changed part or the entire financial burden of short-term benefits from governments onto employers and private organisations. Disability benefits are provided by the state or local governments by all three countries however, in the UK only short term benefits are provided but in Germany and Sweden both short term and time limited benefits are provided for the disabled (Mitra, 2009). In the United Kingdom, the disability employment rate has been at 40%† (Huang et al, 2009, p. 46). The Liberal state of the United Kingdom faced major crisis of social and economic modernisation at the end of the Second World War. It was David Lloyd George and Winston Churchill who led the drive for what became the National Insurance Act of 1911, which brought in disability insurance. In fact, the reconstruction of welfare in the UK involved a set of relationship between the state, the market and th e family (Clarke & Logan, 1993).The Disability and Carers Service, which is part of the Department of Work & Pension (DWP) has the responsibility of providing benefits for people on benefits such as DLA. DLA is a tax-free benefit to help with extra costs you may have because your’re disabled, this is given to all claimants whether they are working or not (Directgov). Some people who make a claim for DLA may be asked to have a medical examination. Working tax credits was introduced in 2003 along with disability element to help people stay in work or to return to work (Mitra, 2009).Then the 2005 Disability Discrimination Act came into force (Haralambos & Holborn, 2009). (Burchardt, 2000) cited that according to the European Commission (1998), people with disabilities have low levels of participation in society and the employment rate for people with disabilities is 20-30% lower than people without disabilities (Huang, 2009). From 2013 Disability Living Allowance for disabled pe ople aged 16 to 64 will be replaced by a new Personal Independence Payment programme (Directgov).This is a non-means tested, tax free benefit. The DWP is to run a pilot scheme to help assist and reintroduce claimants back into the job market (Mitra, 2009), this will lead to employers paying short term benefits rather than the state. In Sweden it is the Local government responsibility for welfare services. It was from the 13th century that the first local legislation was seen as the responsibility of the local parish to take care of the poor (Bergmark & Minas, 2006, p. 15).The Swedish health system for people with disabilities are that national policy is plainly maintained by legislation and political agreement (Lilja et al, 2003). Swedish disability systems are organised in 3 hierarchical levels; the state, the county councils and the local authorities. However, this responsibility has expired over time and the national government decided to place a great deal of the responsibility for public services on the local authorities (Lilja et al, 2003). In Sweden policies relating to people with disabilities is provided through integration, full contribution and equality.Ministry of Health and social affairs (2000) reported the Swedish parliament had adopted a national policy for individuals with disabilities; they should have the same rights and obligations as everyone and be offered equal resources no matter where they lived (Lilja et al, 2003). While central government is to blame of legislation, general designing and distribution similarly as social insurance, authorities (municipalities) are answerable for social services, and regional government (county councils) for health care.Municipal social services additionally the} health and medical services of county councils are ruled by framework legislation that specifies the framework and objectives of activities however that also affords municipalities and county councils ample chance to interpret the law and form their activities in line with their own pointers People with disabilities will apply for municipal grants to change their homes.Actions like housing with special services for adults, or daily activities for those that are inactive and not enrolled in education are regulated by the Act regarding Support and repair for Persons with sure purposeful Impairments. County councils and municipalities are answerable for that health care help and is provided within the type of rehabilitation and habilitation. however there has been ongoing discussion regarding shifting a number of the price from state as a full to the individual user within the type of increasing the little fees some county councils and native authorities need and presumably reducing subsidies.While central government is in charge of legislation, general planning and distribution as well as social insurance, local authorities (municipalities) are responsible for social services, and regional government (county councils) for health care. Municipal social services and the health and medical services of county councils are governed by framework legislation which specifies the framework and objectives of activities but which also affords municipalities and county councils ample opportunity to interpret the law and shape their activities according to their own guidelines (Olney & Lyle, 2011).More than 70 organisations represent specific disability groups with 2,000 local associations. These organisations receive financial backing from the state, county councils and local authorities (Bahle, 2003). High spending on disability and unemployment helps to prevent poverty and social exclusion in these groups. The local authorities and county councils together have the basic responsibility for ensuring that people with disabilities are guaranteed good health and economic and social stability, and also for enabling the individual to lead an independent life.People with disabilities can apply for municipal grants to modify their homes. Actions such as housing with special services for adults, or daily activities for those who are inactive and not enrolled in education are regulated by the Act Concerning Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments. County councils and municipalities are responsible for that health care assistance and is provided in the form of rehabilitation and habilitation.But there has been ongoing discussion about shifting some of the cost from state as a whole to the individual user in the form of increasing the small fees some county councils and local authorities require and possibly reducing subsidies. Country by Country The form of the welfare state that emerged was The ‘social state' of Germany began in the late 19th century when Bismarck was concerned the political left would oppose his place in power, he decided to introduce welfare provision into Germany to gain support from the left (Esping-Anderson, 1998).Bismarck's basic idea was th at people who were in work would pay into a scheme and this money would be distributed back to the poor (Ginsburg, 1993), he introduced the world's first State Social Insurance Scheme in 1883 (Bryson, 1992). The welfare system was about the basic needs of the state, with individuals helping themselves, the state would only intervene if it was absolutely necessary (Ginsburg, 1993). It was upon this base that Germany placed the future of welfare provision. Between 1950 and 1970 Germany's welfare system started to take shape.Interested in individual well being, the Christian, Catholic and Trade Unionists sections of the Government were introducing policies to increase job security (George, 1996). The neo- liberal ideas of strong market economy, individualism and democratic culture paired with the egalitarian approach to policy saw very distinctive priorities forming, of liberalism, conservative. Another example of how a corporatist system works in practice can be seen in the way a new insurance scheme for long term care was introduced in Germany in the mid-1990s.Time limited benefits was introduced in disability systems by the government via social insurance or social assistance programs (Mitra, 2009). The German welfare system is comprehensive and generous Social insurance lies at the heart of German social welfare. The disabled are also served by a broad range of medical and vocational programs designed to provide them with humane living conditions. Statutory social insurance programs are responsible for meeting the various needs of their members who become disabled.In addition, government agencies at the federal, Land, and local levels seek to provide employment and help with special housing and transportation provisions. Employment of the disabled is furthered by federal legislation that requires firms employing more than fifteen persons to reserve 6 percent of positions for the disabled or to make annual compensatory payments My hypothesis is, Germany and Sw eden disability programmes have a strong history with non-profit organisations that help support provisions for the disabled stronger than Britain’s profit based organizations.But on the other hand a result of social policies that are too strongly oriented towards the past on the one hand and sustainable conservative family patterns on the other, very little importance is attached to disability social policy contexts. CONCLUSION There is no longer a distinction between Germany’s contribution-based and Britain’s tax-based funding of welfare state programs, but in practice these two models have come together, as most social-insurance schemes are funded by a mixture of employer/employee contributions and grants from general state incomes.Contribution-based schemes, which are funded and administered independent of the government budget and in which members have vested benefits, have in history tended to be more generous and less prone to cutbacks than tax-funded sch emes, which the state can cut back when tax revenues are limited or an anti welfare state political party comes to power. It is, however, important to stress that there are considerable differences between the lives of disabled people and the type of welfare benefits across the European welfare system.The two decisive but interconnected differences consist of the amount to which the public sector takes the individual or the family as its point of departure and the degree to which disabilities is seen as a stage of life in its own right or how each individual is assessed. Welfare pluralism suggests that all welfare provisions will be provided by all the five providers in all countries in the future and less state/public responsibility. ?REFERENCES Bahle, T. (2003) ‘The changing institutionalization of social services in England and Wales, France and Germany: is the welfare state on the retreat? , Journal of European Social Policy, 13(5), pp. 5-20 Bergmark, A. and Minas, R. â₠¬ËœRescaling Social Welfare Policies in Sweden’ Institute for Future Studies [Online]. Available at: http://www. euro. centre. org/rescalingDocuments/files/Sweden. pdf (Accessed: 15 March 2012) Bode, I. 2006) ‘Disorganised welfare mixes: voluntary agencies and new governance regimes in Western Europe’, Journal of European Social Policy, 16(4), pp. 346-359 Clarke, J. , & Cochrane, A. (1993) Comparing Welfare States: Britain in International Context, London, Sage Etherington, D. & Ingold, J. (2012) ‘Welfare to work and the inclusive labour market: a comparative study of activation policies for disability and long-tern sickness benefit claimants in the UK and Denmark’, Journal of European Social Policy, 22(1) pp. 0-44 Haralambos & Holborn (2009) (7th edn) Sociology Themes and Perspectives, London, HarperCollinsPublishers Limited Huang, J. , Guo, B. , & Bricout, J. (2009) ‘From Concentration to Dispersion: The Shift in Policy Approach to Disability Employment’, Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 20(1) pp. 46-54 Landman, T. (2004) Isssues and Methods in Comparative Politics: an introduction. 3rd edn. Dawsonera [Online] Available at: http://www. dawsonera. com/depp/reader/protected/external/AbstractView/S9780203929780/S0. 78/0Lilja, M, Mansson, I, Jahlenius, L. , & Sacco-Peterson, M. (2003) ‘Disability Policy in Sweden: Policies Concerning Assistive Technology and Home Modification Services’, Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 14(3)pp. 130-135 Mitra, S. (2009) ‘Temporary and Partial Disability Programs in Nine Countries’, Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 20 (1) pp. 14-27 Olney, M. F. & Lyle, C. (2011) ‘The Benefits Trap: Barriers to Employment Experienced by SSA Beneficiaries’, Rehabilitation Counceling Bulletin, 54(4), pp. 197-209

Saturday, November 9, 2019

Religion…True or False? Essay

For many people religion represents a commitment or devotion to religious faith or observance. Within this commitment encompasses a personal set or institutionalized system of religious attitudes, beliefs, practices or system of beliefs held to with ardor and reliance. In Kurt Vonnegut’s Cat’s Cradle, Vonnegut introduces a religion known as Bokononism, which epitomizes a standard foundation built upon nothing more than â€Å"foma! Lies!† (Vonnegut 191). Bokononism focuses on man’s need for a God, even though Vonnegut believes there is no such thing. He expresses his beliefs of Divine Province, while making fun of Christianity, satirizing the notion that all religions are nothing more than lies. Religion gives many people a feeling of security because they believe that a divine power watches over them and promises them salvation and either happiness or the chance to improve themselves in a life after death. Bokononism is a religion based on lies, while Christianity is a based around the life and teachings of Christ and the sacred scripture of the Bible. Hence, the question is whether or not society bases religion, mainly Christianity, upon nothing more than â€Å"foma† itself. Bokononism breathed life when first founded by a Negro man named Lionel Boyd Johnson. The name Bokonon surfaced due to the fact that it rendered to be the â€Å"pronunciation given the name Johnson in the island’s English dialect† (Vonnegut 108). Bokonon creates the religion for the people of a small Caribbean island called San Lorenzo; he then makes it a point that â€Å"he and his religion be outlawed, and that those caught practicing it [are] to be killed† (Lundquist 37) by punishment of being hanged on the dreaded hook. Such an atrocity becomes enacted so the people will be happy and totally content, for by taking part in the religion that all people on the island practice, they partake in a rebellious action and can take the focus from their horribly useless lives. The idea is for that the religion and the government to constantly oppose each other, with Bokonon the virtuous prohibit, hiding from it all. The doctrines that make up Bokononism consist of a â€Å"language itself [that] is amusing, [yet] serves to outline an approach to life that has considerable appeal† (Lundquist 37) in which assists in capturing the true essence behind the religion. Coincidentally resembling Jesus and the bible, Bokonon relies on his vast variety of language, and his Books of Bokonon. His language consists of several significant key concepts such as a karass, which is a â€Å"team [of people] that do[es] God’s will without ever discovering what they are doing† (Vonnegut 2), thus revealing that â€Å"if you find your life tangled up with somebody else’s life for no very logical reasons†, writes Bokonon, â€Å"that person may be a member of your karass† (Simons 45). In The Books of Bokonon, Bokonon mainly comprises them of calypsos and such on religion, life, and perceptions. More importantly however exists the theory of Dynamic Tension. Such a theory embodies the belief of good versus evil, and maintaining the ongoing tension between the two. To draw a parallel, is the incident of the Garden of Good and Evil within Christianity. Christianity happened to be instituted on the existence and philosophy of Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ’s life began after he was baptized by Saint John when he thirty years old. He set out with a certain ambition, being that he sought to announce that â€Å"the Kingdom of God was coming, and that it had begun to arrive even as He announced it† (Callan 2). Jesus established this ambition both verbally and physically by utilizing His phenomenon and philosophies. In addition, Jesus also preformed many miracles, in which he made reputable as to the benefit of other people not Himself. Among such miracles include: changing water into wine, walking on the sea, healing sick people, alleviating the pain of the suffering, restoring sight to the blind, and restoring to the disabled people the ability to use their limbs again (Callan 2). Overall, most Christians of society believe that Jesus portrays the bona fide savior that will, in the end, resuscitate humanity. Bokononism starts with a creation event, which mocks the Christian creation account. In Bokonon’s tale of creation God creates man and woman out of mud, rather than dust, and he concludes by allowing them to define their own purpose. While the difference between dust and mud seem insignificant, the purpose for humanity may be quite different. Bokonon tells man that his purpose in life is defined by himself, and not by God. Here on the opposite end of this, Christianity holds that every person’s purpose in life bestows to bring honor and glory to God, whether provided by preaching the good news (Gospel) or by practicing good works toward man, and letting the glory of God shine outward through them (Callan 1). Compared to Christianity, Bokononism does not specifically talk of man’s fall into sin, however, it does somewhat infer that Bokonon first preached on the folly of understanding and the hollowness of truth and human stupidity, which he ultimately won the people of San Lorenzo over with. Bokonon preached on man’s sin right from the beginning, similar to what may be depicted through the garden of Good and Evil in Christianity. â€Å"As helpful as Bokononism [was], as devoid of false pieties as it [was], as concerned as it [was] with human decency and the necessity of having a sense of purpose† (Lundquist 39) it, in the end, is nothing more then the notion of living â€Å"life by the foma that make[s] you brave and kind and healthy and happy† (Simons 39). Christianity often refers to good works as the doctrine of Sanctification (Knight 5). This doctrine begins with the understanding that man is sinful, and will be sinful until the day he dies. Regardless of what man does or tries to accomplish on earth, he will always be sinful, and will continue to fall into sin lurching ever so quickly toward eternal death and damnation (Knight 5-6). Vonnegut seems to perceive, like many, that Christians feel because they are spotless before the eyes of the Lord, that they can thus do what they please. The Holy Spirit corroborates work in a Christian’s life, and may even be responsible for the faith which breeds within a Christian. The basic principle behind sanctification is that the death of Christ, which the Holy Spirit has given faith in, is the inspiration and the power which pushes a Christian to do good works. Hence, this encompasses the doctrine of daily life, one which a Christian yearns to practice every day, and yet may be constant ly faced with a road block, the road block of sin. â€Å"Bokononism is a philosophy of flow, resisting entropy and harrowing the fixities that reduce societies to monomaniacal obsessions† (Simons 47) of harmless untruths. Bokonon â€Å"worships the human above all other values,† (Simons 45); however, at the same time relishes in the fact that the joke of â€Å"maintaining order† through the religion of Bokononism, serves as a joke being played on humanity thus revealing human stupidity. Bokononism denotes the joke on Christianity, every characteristic of Bokononism can be designed to mock Christianity in some manner or another. Bokonon insists that his own religion, which he created, is filled with lies and based on nothing else, yet all of the Island of San Lorenzo believes in Bokonon (Lundquist 135). Ultimately, â€Å"Bokononism refuses to blink at the hard truth of a reality it cannot alter, it nevertheless fictionalizes that reality† (Simons 40). Bokononists have to hide their religion, because the world hates and despises them for their beliefs. Much akin to the Bokononists, who are condemned to an oath of silence, Christians have to hide their voices and beliefs as well. Christians over time have been forced into hiding, because they are not considered â€Å"politically correct† and Bokononists have been shoved into hiding so as not to touch the â€Å"souls† of their feet, known as the art of Boko-Maru (Vonnegut 135). Simultaneously, they all enter a hiding, a hiding from the world which hates what it does not know, and what it does not know is good, and love. On the whole, Christian faith portrays the notion about seeking and knowing Jesus Christ with all facets of the human character. It corresponds to loving Him with all your heart, mind, soul and strength; therefore, certain individualistic and legitimate fallacies are flip sides of an error to the concept of Christianity. Underlying the error of the individualistic fallacy is the presumption that Jesus demands on societies lives in which can be satisfied by societies own efforts. The legitimate fallacy holds that there are possibly some set of rules of behavior which can be kept to earn a way into Jesus’ favor. Then, the next step of the fallacy can be established by insisting that, as long as society keeps Jesus’ rules and, thus, please Him, they are free in all other things to live their lives in their own way, entirely for their benefit, without further considering Him. We all look for ways to please Jesus, and avoid eternal punishment by simply keeping rules, with minimal actual contact with Him and without ever giving ourselves to Him. Nevertheless, this does not work that way, and the result of society pursuing religion in this way is usually horrendous, and furthermore is not a religion based on â€Å"foma†, or a certain principle, but based on a relationship with Jesus Christ. Prepositional Phrase Subject Verb Infinitive Phrase Adverb Clause Participial Phrase Adj. Clause -ly Adverbs Conjunctive Adverb Gerund Phrase Works Cited Callan, Terrance D. â€Å"Jesus Christ.† 31 May 2003. . Knight, Kevin. â€Å"Catholic Encyclopedia: Character of Jesus Chris.† May 31 200. . Lundquist, James. Kurt Vonnegut. New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Co., 1977. Simons, John L. â€Å"Tangled Up in You: A Playful Reading of Cat’s Cradle.† Kurt Vonnegut. Ed. Harold Bloom. Philadelphia: Chelsea House Publishers, 1990. Vonnegut, Kurt. Cat’s Cradle. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell Publishing Group, Inc., 1963.

Thursday, November 7, 2019

The History of Root Beer and Inventor Charles Hires

The History of Root Beer and Inventor Charles Hires According to his biography, Philadelphia pharmacist Charles Elmer Hires discovered a recipe for a delicious tisane- a form of herbal tea- while on his honeymoon in New Jersey. Not long after, he began selling a dry version of the tea blend but it had to be mixed with water, sugar, and yeast and left to ferment for the carbonation process to take place. On the suggestion of his friend Russell Conwell (founder of Temple University), Hires began working on a liquid formulation for a carbonated root beer beverage that would be more appealing to the masses. The result was a combination of more than 25 herbs, berries, and roots that Hires used to flavor carbonated soda water. At Conwells urging, Hires introduced his version of root beer to the public at the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial exhibition. Hires Root Beer was a hit. In 1893, the Hires family first sold and distributed bottled root beer. The History of Root Beer While Charles Hires and his family contributed greatly to the popularity of modern root beer, its origins can be traced to pre-colonial times during which indigenous tribes commonly created beverages and medicinal remedies from sassafras roots. Root beer as we know it today is descended from small beers, a collection of beverages (some alcoholic, some not) concocted by American colonists using what they had at hand. The brews varied by region and were flavored by locally grown herbs, barks, and roots. Traditional small beers included birch beer, sarsaparilla, ginger beer, and root beer. Root beer recipes of the era contained different combinations of ingredients such as allspice, birch bark, coriander, juniper, ginger, wintergreen, hops, burdock root, dandelion root, spikenard, pipsissewa, guaiacum chips, sarsaparilla, spicewood, wild cherry bark, yellow dock, prickly ash bark, sassafras root, vanilla beans, hops, dog grass, molasses, and licorice. Many of these ingredients are still used in root beer today, along with added carbonation. There is no single recipe for root beer. Fast Facts: Top Root Beer Brands If imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, then Charles Hires would have a lot to feel flattered about. The success of his commercial root beer sales soon inspired competition. Here are some of the most notable root beer brands.A W: In 1919, Roy Allen bought a root beer recipe and began marketing his beverage in Lodi, California. A year later, Allen partnered with Frank Wright to form AW Root Beer. In 1924, Allen bought his partner out and obtained a trademark for the brand that is now the top-selling root beer in the world.Barqs: Barqs Root Beer debuted in 1898. It was the creation of Edward Barq, who along with his brother Gaston were the principals of the  Barqs Brothers Bottling Company founded in the New Orleans French Quarter in 1890. The brand is still owned by the Barqs family but is currently manufactured and distributed by the Coca-Cola Company.Dads: The recipe for Dads Root Beer was created by Ely Klapman and Barney Berns in the basement of Klapmans Chicago-area ho me in the late 1930s. It was the first product to make use of the six-pack packaging  format invented by the Atlanta Paper Company in the 1940s.Mug Root Beer: Mug Root Beer was originally marketed as â€Å"Belfast Root Beer† during the 1940s by the Belfast Beverage Company. The product name was later changed to Mug Old Fashioned Root Beer, which was then shortened to Mug Root Beer. Currently manufactured and distributed by PepsiCo, Mugs brand mascot is a bulldog named â€Å"Dog.† Root Beer and Health Concerns In 1960, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration banned the use of sassafras as a potential carcinogen. Sassafras is one of the main flavoring ingredients in root beer. However, it was determined that the potentially dangerous element of the plant was found only in the oil. Once a method to extract the harmful oil from the sassafras was found, sassafras could continue to be used without harmful repercussions. As with other soft drinks, classic root beer is classified by the scientific community as a sugar-sweetened beverage or SSB. Studies have linked SSBs to a number of health concerns including obesity, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes, and tooth decay. Even non-sweetened beverages, if consumed in too great a quantity, have the potential for negatively impacting health.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

First Battle of Bull Run

First Battle of Bull Run The Battle of Bull Run was the first major battle of the American Civil War, and it occurred, in the summer of 1861, when many people believed the war would probably only consist of one big decisive battle. The battle, which was fought in the heat of a July day in Virginia, had been carefully planned by generals on both the Union and Confederate sides. And when inexperienced troops were called upon to execute the fairly complicated battle plans, the day turned chaotic. While it looked for a time like the Confederates would lose the battle, a fierce counterattack against the Union Army resulted in a rout. By the end of the day thousands of demoralized Union troops were streaming back to Washington, D.C., and the battle was generally seen as a disaster for the Union. And the failure of the Union Army to secure a quick and decisive victory made it clear to Americans on both sides of the conflict that the Civil War would not be the short and simple affair many assumed it would be. Events Leading to the Battle After the attack on Fort Sumter in April 1861, President Abraham Lincoln issued a call for 75,000 volunteer troops to come from the states which hadn’t seceded from the Union. The volunteer soldiers enlisted for a term of three months. Troops began arriving in Washington, D.C. in May 1861, and set up defenses around the city. And in late May portions of northern Virginia (which had seceded from the Union after the attack on Fort Sumter) were invaded by the Union Army. The Confederacy set up its capital in Richmond, Virginia, about 100 miles from the federal capital city, Washington, D.C. And with northern newspapers trumpeting  the slogan  Ã¢â‚¬Å"On to Richmond,† it seemed inevitable that  a  clash would occur somewhere between Richmond and Washington in that first summer of war. Confederates Massed In Virginia A Confederate army began massing in the vicinity of Manassas, Virginia, a railroad junction situated between Richmond and Washington. And it became increasingly obvious that the Union Army would be marching south to engage the Confederates. The timing of precisely  when the battle would be fought became a complicated issue. General Irvin McDowell had become the leader of the Union Army, as General Winfield Scott, who had commanded the army, was too old and infirm to command during wartime. And McDowell, a West Point graduate and career soldier who had served in the Mexican War, wanted to wait before committing his inexperienced troops to battle. President Lincoln saw things differently. He was well aware that the enlistments for the volunteers was only for three months, which meant most of them could be going home before they ever saw the enemy. Lincoln pressed McDowell to attack. McDowell organized his 35,000 troops, the largest army ever assembled in North America to that time. And in mid-July he began moving toward Manassas, where 21,000 Confederates had assembled. The March to Manassas The Union Army began moving south on July 16, 1861. Progress was slow in the July heat, and the lack of discipline of many of the new troops didn’t help matters. It took days to reach the area of Manassas, about 25 miles from Washington. It became clear that the anticipated battle would take place on Sunday, July 21, 1861. Stories would often be told about how spectators from Washington, riding in carriages and bringing along picnic baskets, had raced down to the area so they could watch the battle as if it was a sporting event. The Battle of Bull Run General McDowell conceived a fairly elaborate plan to attack the Confederate army commanded by his former West Point classmate, General P.G.T. Beauregard. For his part, Beauregard also had a complex plan. In the end, the plans of both generals fell apart, and actions by individual commanders and small units of soldiers determined the outcome. In the early phase of the battle the Union Army seemed to be beating the disorganized Confederates, but the rebel army managed to rally. General Thomas J. Jackson’s brigade of Virginians helped turn the tide of the battle, and Jackson that day received the everlasting nickname â€Å"Stonewall† Jackson. Counterattacks by Confederates were helped by fresh troops who arrived by railroad, something entirely new in warfare. And by late afternoon the Union Army was in retreat. The road back to Washington became a scene of panic, as the frightened civilians who had come out to watch the battle tried to race homeward alongside thousands of demoralized Union troops. Significance of the Battle of Bull Run Perhaps the most important lesson from the Battle of Bull Run was that it helped erase the popular notion that the rebellion of the slave states would be a short affair settled with one decisive blow. As an engagement between two untested and inexperienced armies, the battle itself was marked by countless mistakes. Yet two sides demonstrated that they could put large armies in the field and could fight. The Union side sustained casualties of about 3,000 killed and wounded, and Confederate losses were about 2,000 killed and wounded. Considering the size of the armies that day, the casualties were not heavy. And casualties of later battles, such as Shiloh and Antietam the following year, would be far heavier. And while the Battle of Bull Run didn’t really change anything in a tangible sense, as the two armies essentially wound up in the same positions as where they had started, it was a powerful blow to the pride of the Union. Northern newspapers, which had bellowed for a march into Virginia, actively looked for scapegoats. In the South, the Battle of Bull Run was considered a great boost to morale. And, as the disorganized Union Army had left behind a number of cannon, rifles, and other supplies, just the acquisition of material was helpful to the Confederate cause. In an odd twist of history and geography, the two armies would meet about a year later in essentially the same place, and there would be a Second Battle of Bull Run, otherwise known as the Battle of Second Manassas. And the outcome would be the same, the Union Army would be defeated.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Role of poultry in the global supply of meat Literature review

Role of poultry in the global supply of meat - Literature review Example There will be techniques discussed to prevent the animals from catching diseases and consumers to consume diseased meat. Lastly, the paper will also look at the advantages of consuming some poultry products like chicken. Role of Poultry in the Global Supply of Meat Breeding of Poultry Capper (2011) elucidates the different types of breeding techniques and names four of the most common types. In-breeding, line-breeding, out-crossing and out-breeding are the most common ones. In-breeding refers to the type of technique where animals that are close relatives are bred together. Line-breeding refers to breeding of animals that are not from the immediate family but could be distant relatives. The family line is the same but relationship is rather distant. Out-crossing is the crossing of animals especially dogs that is related to line breeding but the lines are completely distinct from one another. Out-breeding on the other hand is the breeding of animals that are from different lines. The animals are not the product of line-breeding. Capper (2011) is of the opinion that the demand for poultry products has increased in the past few years and resources like land and water to meet the demands have decreased. The production of livestock has to increase if the global demands are to be met and animal breeding must support it. Capper (2011) proposes that breeding goals have to be implemented on a more frequent basis. As breeding goals helps to improve characteristic of different species, it will help scientists with disease resistance and development or growth in animals. Delgado (2009) elucidates that growth is one of the most important features of breeding goals resulting to improve animal breeding. An animal that grows faster will be able to produce a larger amount in less time. One such example is the salmon fish in livestock marine. After 7 generations of endeavor, salmons can now be slaughtered at half the time it was done 7 generations before. It also now gives 25% m ore protein. Delgado (2009) believes that the major cost incurred in poultry arises from feeding the animals. The total cost in proportion to other cost of production is around 75%. Delgado (2009) believes that the cost will raise even further more in the future as more animal breeding takes place. Because of environment factors the prices of are also expected to rise. Production and reproduction will become more important than ever. Thus productivity traits will become a major part of the breeding goals not only for food purposes but also for the environment. Yoav & Soller (2013) believe an animal welfare is very important in achieving breeding goals. There should be proper breeding centers build in different localities for the purpose of breeding them. They could be far away from the cities but should have two major things. Firstly it should have all the necessary resources like food, medication and other health benefits to make sure that the animal receives proper treatment and s econdly the environment where they are made to breed must be clean, pollution free and fit for the animals in every other sense. Yoav & Soller (2013) believe that animal welfare is not only advantageous for the animals but it also has great many advantages for man. An animal that grows in a healthy environment receiving medication will unlikely be a threat to human life after when being consumed. Scientist in recent years has blamed the local farmers for the lack of responsibility

Thursday, October 31, 2019

A Critique of Globalisation Theories Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3500 words

A Critique of Globalisation Theories - Essay Example In effect, increased globalisation has encouraged the open economy and free movement of trade while maintaining a closed door policy to the globalisation of human capital across national borders in the western industrialized nations.   Instead, globalisation is viewed in a one way fashion.   Increased industrialization of developing and third world countries were technologically advanced nations can benefit from the cheaper labour pool, the natural resources of the host country and the desperation of the host countries for an infusion of capital without the reciprocal movement of human capital movement to the west.   Klein continues in this vein stating â€Å"the seventy to eighty-five million migrant workers world wide are more than the unseen side effect of ‘free trade.’ Once displaced they also enter the free market†¦as commodities, selling the only thing they have left: their labour.† Hannicles (2005) reminds us that even with the seemingly extensiv e migration in recent years, migration is a widely engrained, accepted practice throughout history.      â€Å"Stimulated by decolonization, modernization, demographic imbalances, and global economic inequalities, international migrant movement has reached unprecedented levels and continues to accelerate†.   Fass (2005: p. 938) reminds us, likewise; â€Å"The mass movement of populations, whether associated with war or with economic change (and since these are frequently related, to both), is hardly new.†Ã¢â‚¬  Since the dawn of time man has migrated. Geographic boundaries are merely societal imposed features of culture to produce an ‘us’ versus ‘them’ phenomenon which have existed since our earliest recorded accounts. As an example Fass (2005) points to our more recent past when during the 17th and 18th century, a period when empires collided and brought large portions of the Americas, Africa, and Asia into the European force field. So expansive was that world, that one historian, David Hancock, has described its innovative and wealthy beneficiaries as Citizens of the World. These collisions created the strong currents that led to an immense migration within the Americas, in Africa, and across the Atlantic and Indian Oceans (p. 938) These same routes of migration are still in evidence today. It is neither new nor unique. What has brought the migration to the forefront in recent,

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Information system security Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Information system security - Research Paper Example The later sections of the discussion highlighted the security types focusing on the encryption and decryption aspects. The findings from the study revealed that effective information security system is crucial in terms of safeguarding the interests of an organization and ensuring its competitiveness and sustainability in the present competitive market scenario. It was ascertained that while creating ISS, it is crucial to consider the threat aspects so as to ensure the reliable and secure information system. ‘Information Security System (InfoSec)’, in technological terms can be describe as an interconnected security based system which specifically aims towards safeguarding the crucial digitized form of information from being unauthorized accessed by type of unreliable source or individual1. Such type of unreliable access might significantly hamper the stored digitized data in term of ‘disclosure’, ‘modification’, ‘crashing’ or even ‘disrupting’ it2. This concept of ‘Information Security System’ have gained significant amount of preference within the past few years3. This is mostly because of the changing pattern of marketing trend and the competition level; industries are becoming more and more concerned regarding confinement of their organizational information to prevent the competitors from imitating it. Adding to that, due to the digitization and ecommerce related concepts, majority of the organizational based information are transformed into digitized form for effective storage and evaluation, which further increases the chances of online security issue occurrences4. As a result, almost all organizations in the present scenario are establishing own security domains. The prime intention is to preserve the integrity as well as the information privacy factor. All these have gradually contributed in terms of bringing about

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Merger between Air India and Indian Airlines

Merger between Air India and Indian Airlines INDIAN AIRLINES The erstwhile Indian Airlines Limited or currently known as Indian, was Indias first state owned domestic airline. Indian Airlines was set up under the aegis of federal Union Ministry of Civil Aviation and based in New Delhi. Its main bases were the international airports in Chennai, Mumbai, Kolkata and New Delhi. It has now been merged with Air India for corporate purposes, though for now, continues to issue its own tickets. .Indian Airlines came into being with the enactment of the Air Corporations Act, 1953. It was renamed Indian on December 7, 2005. Indian Airlines started its operations from 1st August, 1953, with a fleet of 99 aircraft and was the outcome of the merger of seven former independent airlines, namely Deccan Airways, Airways-India, Bharat Airways, Himalayan Aviation, Kalinga Air Lines, Indian National Airways and Air Services of India. The year 1964 saw the Indian Airlines moving into the jet era with the introduction of Caravelle aircraft into its fleet followed by Boeing 737-200 in the early 1970. Along with its wholly owned subsidiary Alliance Air, it flies a fleet of 70 aircraft including Airbus A300, Airbus A320, Airbus A319, Boeing 737, Dornier Do-228, ATR-4, Airbus A319, A320 A321. Along with Indian cities, it flies to many foreign destinations which include Kuwait, Singapore, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Bahrain, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, and Myanmar besides Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nep al, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives. Indian Airlines Flight free run over the Indian skies ended with the entry of private carriers after the liberalization of the Indian economy in the early 1990s when many private airlines like Jet Airways, Air Sahara, East-West Airlines and ModiLuft entered the fray. The entry of low-cost airlines like Air Deccan, Kingfisher Airlines and Spice Jet has revolutionized the Indian aviation scenario. Indian has been a pioneer in the aviation scene in India. It was the first airline in India to introduce the wide-bodied A300 aircraft on the domestic network, the fly-by-wire A320, walk in flights and easy fares. It flies to 76 destinations 58 within India and 18 abroad. It has a total employee strength of around 19,300 employees along with Alliance Air and carries over 7.5 million passengers annually, along with Alliance Air. The main base of the Indian airlines are Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport, Mumbai; Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi; Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport, Kolkata; Chennai International Airport, Chenna i. After being granted permission from the Government of India, on 15 July 2007, Indian Airlines and Air India merged and started to operate as a single entity. Post-merger the new airline will be renamed as Air India. This new airline is also a member of the Star Alliance, the largest airline alliance. The government allowed the formation of a few new limited service airlines in the 1970s: Air Works India, Huns Air, and Golden sun Aviation. None of them had long life spans. Around 1979, IAC dropped the word Corporation from its name. Britains Financial Times described Indian Airlines as the worlds third largest domestic carrier in the mid-1980s. With business growing at better than ten percent a year, it was increasing its capacity as part of a plan to merge Indian Airlines with Air-India, the states international carrier, two leading young industrialists were appointed to chair the boards of the two companies in autumn 1986. Neither these plans nor the new chairmen lasted very long. In 1987, Indian Airlines carried 10 million passengers and earned a profit of Rs630 million ($48 million). However, the quality of its service was facing criticism, to be heightened by the coming entry of new carriers into the market. Amalgamation of Air India Limited and Indian Airlines Limited with National Aviation Company of India Limited The Government of India, on 1 March 2007, approved the merger of Air India and Indian Airlines. Consequent to the above, a new Company viz National Aviation Company of India Limited (NACIL) was incorporated under the Companies Act, 1956 on 30 March 2007 with its Registered Office at Airlines House, 113 Gurudwara Rakabganj Road, New Delhi. The Certificate to Commence Business was obtained on 14 May 2007. SCHEME OF AMALGAMATION UNDER SECTIONS 391-394 OF THE COMPANIES ACT 1956 For the amalgamation of AIR INDIA Ltd. (Transferor No 1 Company) and INDIAN AIRLINES Ltd. (Transferor No 2 Company) with NATIONAL AVIATION COMPANY of India ltd. (Transferee Company) whereas, National Aviation Company of India Limited (the Transferee Company) is a Company incorporated under the Companies Act 1956, having its registered office at Airlines House, 113 Gurudwara Rakabganj Road, New Delhi 110 001. National Aviation Company of India Limited is a Government Company within the meaning of Section 617 of the Companies Act, 1956 and is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Civil Aviation. National Aviation Company of India Limited has been established as a Government Company to be engaged in the business as an airline for providing air transport and allied services. This Scheme proposes the amalgamation of AI and IA in the Transferee Company, which would result in consolidation of the business of all in one entity (i.e. National Aviation Company of India Limited, the Transferee Company). (a) The Scheme proposes to amalgamate each of the Transferor Companies (viz AI and IA ) with the Transferee Company (viz. National Aviation Company of India Limited). SHARE CAPITAL 2.1.1 As per the latest audited accounts on March 31, 2006 the capital structure of the Transferor Companies is as under: A. Transferor Company No 1 AIR INDIA AUTHORIZED SHARE CAPITAL AMOUNT 42, 56, 36,820 Equity Shares of Rs. 10 each Rs. 425, 66, 38,200/- 74, 36,318 Redeemable Preference Shares Rs. 100 each Rs. 74, 36, 31,800/- Total Rs. 500, 00, 00,000/- ISSUED, SUBSCRIBED PAID-UP SHARE CAPITAL AMOUNT 15, 38, 36,427 Equity shares of Rs. 10 each fully paid Rs. 153, 83, 64,270/- As on April 1, 2007 the Authorized Capital, the Issued, Subscribed and Paid up Share Capital of AI remains the same. B. Transferor Company No 2 INDIAN AIRLINES AUTHORIZED SHARE CAPITAL AMOUNT 94, 99, 58,200 Equity Shares of Rs. 10 each Rs. 949, 95, 82,000/- 50, 04,180 Redeemable Preference Shares Rs.100 each Rs. 50, 04, 18,000/- Total Rs. 1000, 00, 00,000/- ISSUED, SUBSCRIBED PAID-UP SHARE CAPITAL AMOUNT 43, 21, 36,489 Equity shares of Rs. 10 each fully paid Rs. 432, 13, 64,890/- As on April 1, 2007 the Authorized Capital, the Issued Subscribed and Paid up Share Capital of IA remains the same As on April 1, 2007 the capital structure of the Transferee Company is as under: Transferee Company National Aviation Company of India Limited (NACIL) AUTHORIZED SHARE CAPITAL AMOUNT 50,000 Equity Shares of Rs. 10 each Rs. 5, 00,000/- ISSUED, SUBSCRIBED PAID-UP SHARE CAPITAL AMOUNT 50,000 Equity Shares of Rs. 10 each Rs. 5, 00,000/- Transfer of Assets With effect from the Appointed Date and upon the Scheme becoming effective, the Transferor Companies shall be transferred to and be vested in and/or be deemed to have been transferred to and be vested in and managed by the Transferee Company, as a going concern, without any further deed or act, together with all its properties, assets, rights, benefits and interest therein, subject to existing charges thereon in favor of banks and financial institutions or otherwise, as the case may be and as may be modified by them, subject to the provisions of this Scheme, in accordance with Sections 391-394 of the Act and all other applicable provisions of law, if any. Without prejudice to Clause 3.1 above in respect of such of the assets of the Transferor Companies as are movable in nature or intangible property or are otherwise capable of transfer by manual delivery or by endorsement and delivery including plant, aircraft, machinery and equipments, the same shall be so transferred or shall be deemed to be so transferred to the Transferee Company and shall upon such transfer become the property and an integral part of the Transferee Company. In respect of such of the said assets other than those referred hereinabove, the same shall, without any further act, instrument or deed, be vested in and/ or be deemed to be vested in the Transferee Company in accordance with the provisions of Section 394 of the Act. Transfer of Liabilities (a) With effect from the Appointed Date and upon the Scheme becoming effective, all debts, liabilities, duties and obligations, secured or unsecured, and whether or not provided for in the books of accounts of the Transferor Companies, whether disclosed or undisclosed in the balance sheet, shall be the debts, liabilities, duties and obligations of the Transferee Company and the Transferee Company undertakes to meet, discharge and satisfy the same. (b) Where any of the liabilities and obligations attributed to the Transferor Companies on the Appointed Date has been discharged by the Transferor Companies after the Appointed Date and prior to the Effective Date, such discharge shall be deemed to have been for and on behalf of the Transferee Company. All loans raised and used and liabilities incurred by the Transferor Companies after the Appointed Date but before the Effective Date for operations of the Transferor Companies shall be loans and liabilities of the Transferee Company. Any guarantee/letter of comfort/commitment letter given by the Government or any agency or bank in favor of the Transferor Companies with regard to any loan or lease finance shall continue to be operative in relation to the Transferee Company Contracts, Deeds, Approvals, Exemptions etc (a) With effect from the Appointed Date and upon the Scheme becoming effective, all contracts, deeds, bonds, agreements, schemes arrangements, insurance policies, indemnities, guarantees and other instruments of whatsoever nature in relation to the Transferor Companies, or to the benefit of which the Transferor Companies may be eligible, and which are subsisting or having effect immediately before the Effective Date, shall be in full force and effect on or against or in favor of the Transferee Company and may be enforced as fully and effectually as if, instead of the Transferor Companies, the Transferee Company had been a party or beneficiary or oblige thereto. (b) With effect from the Appointed Date and upon the Scheme becoming effective, all rights and licenses relating to trademarks, know-how, technical know-how, trade names, descriptions, trading style, franchises, labels, label designs, logos, emblems, and items of such nature, color schemes, utility models, holograms, bar codes, designs, patents, copyrights, privileges and any rights, title or interest in intellectual property rights in relation to the Transferor Companies to which the Transferor Companies are a party or to the benefit of which the Transferor Companies may be entitled /eligible shall be in full force and effect on, or against, or in favor of, the Transferee Company as the case may be, and may be enforced as fully and effectually as if, instead of the Transferor Companies, the Transferee Company had been a party or beneficiary or oblige thereto. (c)The Transferee Company shall be entitled to the benefit of all insurance policies which have been issued in respect of the Transferor Companies and the name of the Transferee Company shall be substituted as Insured in the policies as if the Transferee Company was initially a party (d) With effect from the Appointed Date and upon the Scheme becoming effective the Transferee Company shall replace the Transferor Companies in the respective Air Services Agreements as the designated carrier of India. With effect from the Appointed Date and upon the Scheme becoming effective, all permits including operating permits, quotas, rights, entitlements, licenses including those relating to tenancies, time slots (including those at foreign airports trademarks, patents, copy rights, privileges, powers, facilities of every kind and description of whatsoever nature in relation to the Transferor Companies, including specifically ,licenses and permits for operating as airlines and carriers of passengers, cargo and mail ,and all rights relating thereto to the benefit of which the Transferor Companies may be eligible and which are subsisting or having effect immediately before the Effective Date, shall be and remain in full force and effect in favor of or against the Transferee Company, and may be enforced fully and effectually as if, instead of the Transferor Companies, the Transferee Company had been a beneficiary or oblige thereto. With effect from the Appointed Date and upon the Scheme becoming effective, any statutory licenses, permissions, approvals, exemption schemes, or consents required to carry on operations in the Transferor Companies, respectively, shall stand vested in or transferred to the Transferee Company without any further act or deed, and shall be appropriately mutated by the statutory authorities concerned therewith in favor of the Transferee Company. The benefit of all statutory and regulatory permissions, licenses, environmental approvals and consents including the statutory licenses, permissions or approvals or consents required to carry on the operations of the Transferor Companies shall vest in and become available to the Transferee Company pursuant to the Scheme. The Transferee Company, at any time after the Scheme becoming effective in accordance with the provisions hereof, if so required under any law or otherwise, will execute deeds of confirmation or other writings or arrangements with any party to any contract or arrangement in relation to the Transferor Companies to which the Transferor Companies are a party in order to give formal effect to the above provisions. The Transferee Company shall, under the provisions of this Scheme, be deemed to be authorized to execute any such writings on behalf of the Transferor Companies and to carry out or perform all such formalities or compliances, referred to above, on behalf of the Transferor Companies. Reasons of Merger Merger of the Transferor Companies with the Transferee Company, along with a comprehensive transformation program, is imperative to improve competitiveness. It will provide an opportunity to leverage combined assets and capital better and build a stronger sustainable business. Specifically, the merger will Create the largest airline in India and comparable to other airlines in Asia. The merger between the two state-run carriers will see the beginning of the process of consolidation in the Indian aviation space the fastest growing in the world followed by China, Indonesia and Thailand. Provide an Integrated international/ domestic footprint which will significantly enhance customer proposition and allow easy entry into one of the three global airline alliances, mostly Star Alliance with global consortium of 21 airlines. Enable optimal utilization of existing resources through improvement in load factors and yields on commonly serviced routes as well as deploy freed up aircraft capacity on alternate routes. The merger had created a mega company with combined revenue of Rs 150 billion ($3.7billion) and an estimated fleet size of 150. It had a diverse mix of aircraft for short and long haul resulting in better fleet utilization. Provide an opportunity to fully leverage strong assets, capabilities and infrastructure. Provide an opportunity to leverage skilled and experienced manpower available with both  the Transferor Companies to the optimum potential. Provide a larger and growth oriented company for the people and the same shall be in  larger public interest. Potential to launch high growth profitability businesses (Ground Handling Services,  Maintenance Repair and Overhaul etc.) Provide maximum flexibility to achieve financial and capital restructuring through  revaluation of assets. Provide an increased thrust and focus on airline support businesses. Economies of scale enabled routes rationalization and elimination of route duplication. This resulted in a saving of Rs1.86 billion, ($0.04 billion) and the new airlines will be offering more competitive fares, flying seven different types of aircraft and thus being more versatile and utilizing assets like real estate, human resources and aircraft better. However the merger had also brought close to $10 billion (Rs 440 billion) of debt. The new entity was in a better position to bargain while buying fuel, spares and other materials. There were also major operational benefits as between the two they occupied a large number of parking bays and hangers, facilities which were usually in acute short supply, at several large airports in the country. This worked out to be a major advantage to plan new flights at most convenient times. Traffic rights The protectionism enjoyed by the national carriers with regard to the traffic right entitlements is likely to continue even after the merger. This will ensure that the merged Airlines will have enough scope for continued expansion, necessitated due to their combined fleet strength. The protectionism on traffic rights have another angle, which is aimed at ensuring higher intrinsic value , since the Government is likely to divest certain percentage of its holding in the near future. Revenue synergies will be driven by integration of the complementary networks of the Transferor Companies. Cost and capital productivity synergies will be driven by opportunities for leveraging economies of scale and opportunities for rationalizing overlapping facilities and infrastructure. In addition to these synergies, the amalgamation will also provide an opportunity to initiate a comprehensive transformation program to improve the overall competitiveness of the merged airline i.e. the Transferee Company. This, while improving the financial position would help position and equip the merged entity to better face the current and future challenges arising out of intense competition and declining industry profitability. In furtherance of the aforesaid, this Scheme of amalgamation provides for the transfer and vesting of all the undertakings, properties, assets and liabilities of each of the Transferor Companies to and in the Transferee Company. Post-Merger Scenario -Revenue performance of NACIL (Source: Magic Carpet Official Magazine of AIR INDIA) Integration is incomplete Accenture, the consultant that inked the blueprint of Air India-Indian merger in 2006, had advised the Centre to integrate 748 officials up to the level of deputy general manager (DGM) within nine months of the Cabinet clearance, to ensure that the merger pays off. Twenty-five months later, NACIL has been able to integrate 44 officials up to the level of executive director (ED), according to two board members of NACIL. Hit by recession NACIL, like other air carriers, is hit hard by the slowdown crimping passenger and cargo traffic. Air passenger traffic fell for the seventh month in a row by 11 per cent year-on-year in January 2009. In that month, NACILs load factor, the number of tickets sold in proportion to the total number of available seats, was the lowest (domestically) at 60.2 per cent. The core cost drivers including line maintenance, ground handling, terminal services, flight operations/ dispatches and ticket sales should have been merged first for synergies to translate into actual benefits. NACILs employee-to-aircraft ratio, a gauge of efficiency, is the highest among its peers at 222:1 (the global average is 150:1), resulting in a surplus employee strength of almost 10,000. The wage bill of the merged company, which was 23 per cent of total expenditure at the time of incorporation, is expected to rise sharply due to a grade re-alignment. Fleet Expansion NACILs fleet expansion seems out of sync with the times, as most airlines are actually rounding their fleet and cancelling orders for new planes. While other Indian airlines have withdrawn over a third of their aircraft orders slated for delivery in 2009, NACIL plans to induct 30 aircraft in this fiscal and another 45 by March-end 2012. This means NACIL would face a wall of debt going forward. A NACIL board member informed that the companys total debt in the medium term is estimated at Rs 79,000 crore. It will need Rs 44,000 crore for plane purchases. It has Rs 22,000 crore in long term loans and another Rs 13,000 crore as working capital loans, he said. Mutual Distrust and strong unions The distrust between the two sides of Air India and Indian Airlines is almost palpable. For sure, many jobs will become redundant when functions are unified. Many of those appointed are from Indian Airlines, fuelling resentment among Air India employees. Integration has become a tightrope walk for the management. Strong opposition from unions against managements cost- cutting decisions through their salaries have led to strikes by the employees/ Increased Competition The flux at the top has led to delays in decision-making at a time when demand for air travel has dropped around 8-10% over the last year and competition has heated up in the sector. The national carriers domestic market share has been under pressure ever since budget carriers and new private airlines took wing. Air Indias domestic market share dropped from 19.8% in August 2007, when the merger took place, to 13.9% in January 2008 before rising to 17.2% in February 2009. Lower load factor Though the overall operating performance has been steady, Air India passenger load factor of 63.2%, which was the companys record, lags the industry average of 75% in 2006-07.The load factor difference is even greater when compared to other low fares carriers such as Air Deccan. The companys load factor is decreasing year by year, in 2005- 06 load factor is 66.2% which is more than present load factor. Air India load factor is likely to be low because of the much higher frequency operated on each route. Lower load factor could decrease the companys margins. Conclusion The merger of Air India and Indian is the most significant recent development for Indias aviation sector. Managed correctly, the combined entity has huge potential as the largest airline in one of the worlds largest and fastest growing economies. Global alliances will be attracted by its extensive network in an untapped part of the world (and indeed Star Alliance is due to vote on Air Indias membership later this week). However, the complexity of overseeing a merger taking place against such a challenging environment cannot be overstated, albeit there was no other option. Ultimately, Air India will need to be privatized over the next 3-5 years to introduce commercial disciplines. A partial IPO, scheduled for 2008/09 would be the first step, although the value that can be achieved will be highly dependent on the results from the integration process over the next 12-18 months. A Heavily debt-laden ledger will not make that process easy, unless profitability is strong. Introducing a strategic partner would ideally precede this first step, but would probably follow. Yet an Indian partner might raise competition concerns, and an overseas partner would require changes in the regulations which currently prohibit foreign airlines from holding a stake in Indian carriers. If Air India can successfully navigate through the next couple of years, it has the potential to become a major Asian airline, but 2008 will be critical.